英语专业本科学习

Summarizing,Paraphrasing,and Quoting1[转]

概述、转述和引用(SummarizingParaphrasingand Quoting) 参考A Compendium of Practical English Writing pp.344-350


为了增强论文的说服力,体现论据的权威性和论证的有效性,论文写作者必须将自己的观察、思考和观点建立在相关的参考资料的基础上。与此同时,他还必须将参考资料融入到论文中去,使论文成为一个有机的整体。这是论文写作中非常重要的一个技巧。一般来讲,借用什么样的参考资料要根据论文的具体主题、目的和上下文而定,至于如何借用,一般有概述、转述和引用原文三种方法。


1.概述(Summarizing)


概述就是写作者在准确理解了参考资料原文之后,用自己的话将其内容写成一句或一段简短的概要。概述的技巧一般包括省略细节、简化描述、删除重复、缩减例子等。在具体写作时要注意以下几点:


(1)必须用自己的话正确、准确地概括原作者的思想观点。


(2)在概述过程中要指明原作者、原作品等资料来源。如“. . .(the author)says. . .”,“According to. . .(the author)”等。


(3)概要不宜太长,覆盖面也不宜太大,最好只针对原材料的相关的某一个观点。


(4)在概要和写作者自己的观点论述之间应该有明显的过渡表示,如“According to the author. . .ButI think that. . .”等,否则会发生混淆。


请看下面一段概述。注意写作者概述和引用原文观点的技巧(由于篇幅原因,原作者Roger McGrath的文章“The Myth of Violence in the Old West”在此省略)


Many people believe that violence is part of our Wild West heritageBut Roger McGrathin his article The Myth of Violence in the Old West”shows that frontier violence was very different from contemporary violenceHe explains that in a typical frontier townviolence involved gunslingers who werewilling combatants,” whereas today’s typical victims --the oldthe youngthe weakand the female-- were unaffected by crimeBecause the presence of an armed populace deterred robbery and burglarytheft was much less common in the old West than todayOn the other handMcGrath explainskillings we refueled by gunsalcoholand a code of conduct that invited fighting, so murders were much more frequent than in any U.S. city today (6). Thusaccording to McGraththere is little resemblance on the frontier violence and violence in today's citiesso we cannot blame current violence on our tumultuous frontier past


 





Love Of Life(7)

热爱生命
作者:杰克·伦敦
一切,总算剩下了这一点——
  他们经历了生活的困苦颠连;
  能做到这种地步也就是胜利,
  尽管他们输掉了赌博的本钱。

  他们两个一瘸一拐地,吃力地走下河岸,有一次,走在前面的那个还在乱石中间失足摇晃了一下。他们又累又乏,因为长期忍受苦难,脸上都带着愁眉苦脸、咬牙苦熬的表情。他们肩上捆着用毯子包起来的沉重包袱。总算那条勒在额头上的皮带还得力,帮着吊住了包袱。他们每人拿着一支来复枪。他们弯着腰走路,肩膀冲向前面,而脑袋冲得更前,眼睛总是瞅着地面。
  “我们藏在地窖里的那些子佳节又重阳弹,我们身边要有两三发就好了,”走在后面的那个人说道。
  他的声调,阴沉沉的,干巴巴的,完全没有感情。他冷冷地说着这些话;前面的那个只顾一瘸一拐地向流过岩石、激起一片泡沫的白茫茫的小河里走去,一句话也不回答。
  后面的那个紧跟着他。他们两个都没有脱掉鞋袜,虽然河水冰冷——冷得他们脚腕子疼痛,两脚麻木。每逢走到河水冲击着他们膝盖的地方,两个人都摇摇晃晃地站不稳跟在后面的那个在一块光滑的圆石头上滑了一下,差一点没摔倒,但是,他猛力一挣,站稳了,同时痛苦地尖叫了一声。他仿佛有点头昏眼花,一面摇晃着,一面伸出那只闲着的手,好象打算扶着空中的什么东西。站稳之后,他再向前走去,不料又摇晃了一下,几乎摔倒。于是,他就站着不动,瞧着前面那个一直没有回过头的人。
  他这样一动不动地足足站了一分钟,好象心里在说服自己一样。接着,他就叫了起来:“喂,比尔,我扭伤脚腕子啦。”
  比尔在白茫茫的河水里一摇一晃地走着。他没有回头。
  后面那个人瞅着他这样走去;脸上虽然照旧没有表情,眼睛里却流露着跟一头受伤的鹿一样的神色。
  前面那个人一瘸一拐,登上对面的河岸,头也不回,只顾向前走去,河里的人眼睁睁地瞧着。他的嘴唇有点发抖,因此,他嘴上那丛乱棕似的胡子也在明显地抖动。他甚至不知不觉地伸出舌头来舐舐嘴唇。
  “比尔!”他大声地喊着。
  这是一个坚强的人在患难中求援的喊声,但比尔并没有回头。他的伙伴干瞧着他,只见他古里古怪地一瘸一拐地走着,跌跌冲冲地前进,摇摇晃晃地登上一片不陡的斜坡,向矮山头上不十分明亮的天际走去。他一直瞧着他跨过山头,消失了踪影。于是他掉转眼光,慢慢扫过比尔走后留给他的那一圈世界。
  靠近地平线的太阳,象一团快要熄灭的火球,几乎被那些混混沌沌的浓雾同蒸气遮没了,让你觉得它好象是什么密密团团,然而轮廓模糊、不可捉摸的东西。这个人单腿立着休息,掏出了他的表,现在是四点钟,在这种七月底或者八月初的季节里——他说不出一两个星期之内的确切的日期——他知道太阳大约是在西北方。他瞧了瞧南面,知道在那些荒凉的小山后面就是大熊湖;同时,他还知道在那个方向,北极圈的禁区界线深入到加拿大冻土地带之内。他所站的地方,是铜矿河的一条支流,铜矿河本身则向北流去,通向加冕湾和北冰洋。他从来没到过那儿,但是,有一次,他在赫德森湾公司的地图上曾经瞧见过那地方。
  他把周围那一圈世界重新扫了一遍。这是一片叫人看了发愁的景象。到处都是模糊的天际线。小山全是那么低低的。没有树,没有灌木,没有草——什么都没有,只有一片辽阔可怕的荒野,迅速地使他两眼露出了恐惧神色。
  “比尔!”他悄悄地、一次又一次地喊道:“比尔!”
  他在白茫茫的水里畏缩着,好象这片广大的世界正在用压倒一切的力量挤压着他,正在残忍地摆出得意的威风来摧毁他。他象发疟子似地抖了起来,连手里的枪都哗喇一声落到水里。这一声总算把他惊醒了。他和恐惧斗争着,尽力鼓起精神,在水里摸索,找到了枪。他把包袱向左肩挪动了一下,以便减轻扭伤的脚腕子的负担。接着,他就慢慢地,小心谨慎地,疼得闪闪缩缩地向河岸走去。
  他一步也没有停。他象发疯似地拼着命,不顾疼痛,匆匆登上斜坡,走向他的伙伴失去踪影的那个山头——比起那个瘸着腿,一瘸一拐的伙伴来,他的样子更显得古怪可笑。可是到了山头,只看见一片死沉沉的,寸草不生的浅谷。他又和恐惧斗争着,克服了它,把包袱再往左肩挪了挪,蹒跚地走下山坡。
  谷底一片潮湿,浓厚的苔藓,象海绵一样,紧贴在水面上。他走一步,水就从他脚底下溅射出来,他每次一提起脚,就会引起一种吧咂吧咂的声音,因为潮湿的苔藓总是吸住他的脚,不肯放松。他挑着好路,从一块沼地走到另一块沼地,并且顺着比尔的脚印,走过一堆一堆的、象突出在这片苔藓海里的小岛一样的岩石。
  他虽然孤零零的一个人,却没有迷路。他知道,再往前去,就会走到一个小湖旁边,那儿有许多极小极细的枯死的枞树,当地的人把那儿叫作“提青尼其利”——意思是“小棍子地”。而且,还有一条小溪通到湖里,溪水不是白茫茫的。
  溪上有灯心草——这一点他记得很清楚——但是没有树木,他可以沿着这条小溪一直走到水源尽头的分水岭。他会翻过这道分水岭,走到另一条小溪的源头,这条溪是向西流的,他可以顺着水流走到它注入狄斯河的地方,那里,在一条翻了的独木船下面可以找到一个小坑,坑上面堆着许多石头。这个坑里有他那支空枪所需要的子佳节又重阳弹,还有钓钩、钓丝和一张小鱼网——打猎钓鱼求食的一切工具。同时,他还会找到面粉——并不多——此外还有一块腌猪肉同一些豆子。
  比尔会在那里等他的,他们会顺着狄斯河向南划到大熊湖。接着,他们就会在湖里朝南方划,一直朝南,直到麦肯齐河。到了那里,他们还要朝着南方,继续朝南方走去,那么冬天就怎么也赶不上他们了。让湍流结冰吧,让天气变得更凛冽吧,他们会向南走到一个暖和的赫德森湾公司的站头,那儿不仅树木长得高大茂盛,吃的东西也多得不得了。
  这个人一路向前挣扎的时候,脑子里就是这样想的。他不仅苦苦地拼着体力,也同样苦苦地绞着脑汁,他尽力想着比尔并没有抛弃他,想着比尔一定会在藏东西的地方等他。
  他不得不这样想,不然,他就用不着这样拼命,他早就会躺下来死掉了。当那团模糊的象圆球一样的太阳慢慢向西北方沉下去的时候,他一再盘算着在冬天追上他和比尔之前,他们向南逃去的每一寸路。他反复地想着地窖里和赫德森湾公司站头上的吃的东西。他已经两天没吃东西了;至于没有吃到他想吃的东西的日子,那就更不止两天了。他常常弯下腰,摘起沼地上那种灰白色的浆果,把它们放到口里,嚼几嚼,然后吞下去。这种沼地浆果只有一小粒种籽,外面包着一点浆水。一进口,水就化了,种籽又辣又苦。他知道这种浆果并没有养份,但是他仍然抱着一种不顾道理,不顾经验教训的希望,耐心地嚼着它们。
  走到九点钟,他在一块岩石上绊了一下,因为极端疲倦和衰弱,他摇晃了一下就栽倒了。他侧着身子、一动也不动地躺了一会。接着,他从捆包袱的皮带当中脱出身子,笨拙地挣扎起来勉强坐着。这时候,天还没有完全黑,他借着留连不散的暮色,在乱石中间摸索着,想找到一些干枯的苔藓。后来,他收集了一堆,就升起一蓬火——一蓬不旺的,冒着黑烟的火——并且放了一白铁罐子水在上面煮着。
  他打开包袱,第一件事就是数数他的火柴。一共六十六根。为了弄清楚,他数了三遍。他把它们分成几份,用油纸包起来,一份放在他的空烟草袋里,一份放在他的破帽子的帽圈里,最后一份放在贴胸的衬衫里面。做完以后,他忽然感到一阵恐慌,于是把它们完全拿出来打开,重新数过。
  仍然是六十六根。
  他在火边烘着潮湿的鞋袜。鹿皮鞋已经成了湿透的碎片。毡袜子有好多地方都磨穿了,两只脚皮开肉绽,都在流血。一只脚腕子胀得血管直跳,他检查了一下。它已经肿得和膝盖一样粗了。他一共有两条毯子,他从其中的一条撕下一长条,把脚腕子捆紧。此外,他又撕下几条,裹在脚上,代替鹿皮鞋和袜子。接着,他喝完那罐滚烫的水,上好表的发条,就爬进两条毯子当中。
  他睡得跟死人一样。午夜前后的短暂的黑暗来而复去。
  太阳从东北方升了起来——至少也得说那个方向出现了曙光,因为太阳给乌云遮住了。
  六点钟的时候,他醒了过来,静静地仰面躺着。他仰视着灰色的天空,知道肚子饿了。当他撑住胳膊肘翻身的时候,一种很大的呼噜声把他吓了一跳,他看见了一只公鹿,它正在用机警好奇的眼光瞧着他。这个牲畜离他不过五十尺光景,他脑子里立刻出现了鹿肉排在火上烤得咝咝响的情景和滋味。他无意识地抓起了那支空枪,瞄好准星,扣了一下扳机。公鹿哼了一下,一跳就跑开了,只听见它奔过山岩时蹄子得得乱响的声音。
  这个人骂了一句,扔掉那支空枪。他一面拖着身体站起来,一面大声地哼哼。这是一件很慢、很吃力的事。他的关节都象生了锈的铰链。它们在骨臼里的动作很迟钝,阻力很大,一屈一伸都得咬着牙才能办到。最后,两条腿总算站住了,但又花了一分钟左右的工夫才挺起腰,让他能够象一个人那样站得笔直。
  他慢腾腾地登上一个小丘,看了看周围的地形。既没有树木,也没有小树丛,什么都没有,只看到一望无际的灰色苔藓,偶尔有点灰色的岩石,几片灰色的小湖,几条灰色的小溪,算是一点变化点缀。天空是灰色的。没有太阳,也没有太阳的影子。他不知道哪儿是北方,他已经忘掉了昨天晚上他是怎样取道走到这里的。不过他并没有迷失方向。
  这他是知道的。不久他就会走到那块“小棍子地”。他觉得它就在左面的什么地方,而且不远——可能翻过下一座小山头就到了。
  于是他就回到原地,打好包袱,准备动身。他摸清楚了那三包分别放开的火柴还在,虽然没有停下来再数数。不过,他仍然踌躇了一下,在那儿一个劲地盘算,这次是为了一个厚实的鹿皮口袋。袋子并不大。他可以用两只手把它完全遮没。他知道它有十五磅重——相当于包袱里其他东西的总和——这个口袋使他发愁。最后,他把它放在一边,开始卷包袱。可是,卷了一会,他又停下手,盯着那个鹿皮口袋。他匆忙地把它抓到手里,用一种反抗的眼光瞧瞧周围,仿佛这片荒原要把它抢走似的;等到他站起来,摇摇晃晃地开始这一天的路程的时候,这个口袋仍然包在他背后的包袱里。
  他转向左面走着,不时停下来吃沼地上的浆果。扭伤的脚腕子已经僵了,他比以前跛得更明显,但是,比起肚子里的痛苦,脚疼就算不了什么。饥饿的疼痛是剧烈的。它们一阵一阵地发作,好象在啃着他的胃,疼得他不能把思想集中在到“小棍子地”必须走的路线上。沼地上的浆果并不能减轻这种剧痛,那种刺激性的味道反而使他的舌头和口腔热辣辣的。
  他走到了一个山谷,那儿有许多松鸡从岩石和沼地里呼呼地拍着翅膀飞起来。它们发出一种“咯儿-咯儿-咯儿”的叫声。他拿石子打它们,但是打不中。他把包袱放在地上,象猫捉麻雀一样地偷偷走过去。锋利的岩石穿过他的裤子,划破了他的腿,直到膝盖流出的血在地面上留下一道血迹;但是在饥饿的痛苦中,这种痛苦也算不了什么。他在潮湿的苔藓上爬着,弄得衣服湿透,身上发冷;可是这些他都没有觉得,因为他想吃东西的念头那么强烈。而那一群松鸡却总是在他面前飞起来,呼呼地转,到后来,它们那种“咯儿-咯儿-咯儿”的叫声简直变成了对他的嘲笑,于是他就咒骂它们,随着它们的叫声对它们大叫起来。
  有一次,他爬到了一定是睡着了的一只松鸡旁边。他一直没有瞧见,直到它从岩石的角落里冲着他的脸窜起来,他才发现。他象那只松鸡起飞一样惊慌,抓了一把,只捞到了三根尾巴上的羽毛。当他瞅着它飞走的时候,他心里非常恨它,好象它做了什么对不起他的事。随后他回到原地,背起包袱。
  时光渐渐消逝,他走进了连绵的山谷,或者说是沼地,这些地方的野物比较多。一群驯鹿走了过去,大约有二十多头,都呆在可望而不可即的来复枪的射程以内。他心里有一种发狂似的、想追赶它们的念头,而且相信自己一定能追上去捉住它们。一只黑狐狸朝他走了过来,嘴里叼着一只松鸡。这个人喊了一声。这是一种可怕的喊声,那只狐狸吓跑了,可是没有丢下松鸡。
  傍晚时,他顺着一条小河走去,由于含着石灰而变成乳白色的河水从稀疏的灯心草丛里流过去。他紧紧抓注这些灯心草的根部,拔起一种好象嫩葱芽,只有木瓦上的钉子那么大的东西。这东西很嫩,他的牙齿咬进去,会发出一种咯吱咯吱的声音,仿佛味道很好。但是它的纤维却不容易嚼。
  它是由一丝丝的充满了水份的纤维组成的:跟浆果一样,完全没有养份。他丢开包袱,爬到灯心草丛里,象牛似的大咬大嚼起来。他非常疲倦,总希望能歇一会——躺下来睡个觉;可是他又不得不继续挣扎前进——不过,这并不一定是因为他急于要赶到“小棍子地”,多半还是饥饿在逼着他。他在小水坑里找青蛙,或者用指甲挖土找小虫,虽然他也知道,在这么远的北方,是既没有青蛙也没有小虫的。
  他瞧遍了每上个水坑,都没有用,最后,到了漫漫的暮色袭来的时候,他才发现一个水坑里有一条独一无二的、象鲦鱼般的小鱼。他把胳膊伸下水去,一直没到肩头,但是它又溜开了。于是他用双手去捉,把池底的乳白色泥浆全搅浑了。正在紧张的关头,他掉到了坑里,半身都浸湿了。现在,水太浑了,看不清鱼在哪儿,他只好等着,等泥浆沉淀下去。
  他又捉起来,直到水又搅浑了。可是他等不及了,便解下身上的白铁罐子,把坑里的水舀出去;起初,他发狂一样地舀着,把水溅到自己身上,同时,固为泼出去的水距离太近,水又流到坑里。后来,他就更小心地舀着,尽量让自己冷静一点,虽然他的心跳得很厉害,手在发抖。这样过了半小时,坑里的水差不多舀光了。剩下来的连一杯也不到。
  可是,并没有什么鱼;他这才发现石头里面有一条暗缝,那条鱼已经从那里钻到了旁边一个相连的大坑——坑里的水他一天一夜也舀不干。如果他早知道有这个暗缝,他一开始就会把它堵死,那条鱼也就归他所有了。他这样想着,四肢无力地倒在潮湿的地上。起初,他只是轻轻地哭,过了一会,他就对着把他团团围住的无情的荒原号陶大哭;后来,他又大声抽噎了好久。
  他升起一蓬火,喝了几罐热水让自己暖和暖和、并且照昨天晚上那样在一块岩石上露宿。最后他检查了一下火柴是不是干燥,并且上好表的发条,毯子又湿又冷,脚腕子疼得在悸动。可是他只有饿的感觉,在不安的睡眠里,他梦见了一桌桌酒席和一次次宴会,以及各种各样的摆在桌上的食物。
  醒来时,他又冷又不舒服。天上没有太阳。灰蒙蒙的大地和天空变得愈来愈阴沉昏暗。一阵刺骨的寒风刮了起来,初雪铺白了山顶。他周围的空气愈来愈浓,成了白茫茫一片,这时,他已经升起火,又烧了一罐开水。天上下的一半是雨,一半是雪,雪花又大又潮。起初,一落到地面就融化了,但后来越下越多,盖满了地面,淋熄了火,糟蹋了他那些当作燃料的干苔藓。
  这是一个警告,他得背起包袱,一瘸一拐地向前走;至于到哪儿去,他可不知道。他既不关心小棍子地,也不关心比尔和狄斯河边那条翻过来的独木舟下的地窖。他完全给“吃”这个词儿管住了。他饿疯了。他根本不管他走的是什么路,只要能走出这个谷底就成。他在湿雪里摸索着,走到湿漉漉的沼地浆果那儿,接着又一面连根拔着灯心草,一面试探着前进。不过这东西既没有味,又不能把肚子填饱。
  后来,他发现了一种带酸味的野草,就把找到的都吃了下去,可是找到的并不多,因为它是一种蔓生植物,很容易给几寸深的雪埋没。那天晚上他既没有火,也没有热水,他就钻在毯子里睡觉,而且常常饿醒。这时,雪已经变成了冰冷的雨。他觉得雨落在他仰着的脸上,给淋醒了好多次。天亮了——又是灰蒙蒙的一天,没有太阳。雨已经停了。刀绞一样的饥饿感觉也消失了。他已经丧失了想吃食物的感觉。他只觉得胃里隐隐作痛,但并不使他过分难过。他的脑子已经比较清醒,他又一心一意地想着“小棍子地”和狄斯河边的地窖了。
  他把撕剩的那条毯子扯成一条条的,裹好那双鲜血淋淋的脚。同时把受伤的脚腕子重新捆紧,为这一天的旅行做好准备。等到收拾包袱的时候,他对着那个厚实的鹿皮口袋想了很久,但最后还是把它随身带着。
  雪已经给雨水淋化了,只有山头还是白的。太阳出来了,他总算能够定出罗盘的方位来了,虽然他知道现在他已经迷了路。在前两天的游荡中,他也许走得过分偏左了。因此,他为了校正,就朝右面走,以便走上正确的路程。
  现在,虽然饿的痛苦已经不再那么敏锐,他却感到了虚弱。他在摘那种沼地上的浆果,或者拔灯心草的时候,常常不得不停下来休息一会。他觉得他的舌头很干燥,很大,好象上面长满了细毛,含在嘴里发苦。他的心脏给他添了很多麻烦。他每走几分钟,心里就会猛烈地怦怦地跳一阵,然后变成一种痛苦的一起一落的迅速猛跳,逼得他透不过气,只觉得头昏眼花。
  中午时分,他在一个大水坑里发现了两条鲦鱼。把坑里的水舀干是不可能的,但是现在他比较镇静,就想法子用白铁罐子把它们捞起来。它们只有他的小指头那么长,但是他现在并不觉得特别饿。胃里的隐痛已经愈来愈麻木,愈来愈不觉得了。他的胃几乎象睡着了似的。他把鱼生吃下去,费劲地咀嚼着,因为吃东西已成了纯粹出于理智的动作。他虽然并不想吃,但是他知道,为了活下去,他必须吃。
  黄昏时候,他又捉到了三条鲦鱼,他吃掉两条,留下一条作第二天的早饭。太阳已经晒干了零星散漫的苔藓,他能够烧点热水让自己暖和暖和了。这一天,他走了不到十哩路;第二天,只要心脏许可,他就往前走,只走了五哩多地。但是胃里却没有一点不舒服的感觉。它已经睡着了。
  现在,他到了一个陌生的地带,驯鹿愈来愈多,狼也多起来了。荒原里常常传出狼嗥的声音,有一次,他还瞧见了三只狼在他前面的路上穿过。
  又过了一夜;早晨,因为头脑比较清醒,他就解开系着那厚实的鹿皮口袋的皮绳,从袋口倒出一股黄澄澄的粗金沙和金块。他把这些金子分成了大致相等的两堆,一堆包在一块毯子里,在一块突出的岩石上藏好,把另外那堆仍旧装到口袋里。同时,他又从剩下的那条毯子上撕下几条,用来裹脚。他仍然舍不得他的枪,因为狄斯河边的地窖里有子佳节又重阳弹。
  这是一个下雾的日子,这一天,他又有了饿的感觉。他的身体非常虚弱,他一阵一阵地晕得什么都看不见。现在,对他来说,一绊就摔跤已经不是稀罕事了;有一次,他给绊了一跤,正好摔到一个松鸡窝里。那里面有四只刚孵出的小松鸡,出世才一天光景——那些活蹦乱跳的小生命只够吃一口;他狼吞虎咽,把它们活活塞到嘴里,象嚼蛋壳似地吃起来,母松鸡大吵大叫地在他周围扑来扑去。他把枪当作棍子来打它,可是它闪开了。他投石子打它,碰巧打伤了它的一个翅膀。松鸡拍击着受伤的翅膀逃开了,他就在后面追赶。
  那几只小鸡只引起了他的胃口。他拖着那只受伤的脚腕子,一瘸一拐,跌跌冲冲地追下去,时而对它扔石子,时而粗声吆喝;有时候,他只是一瘸一拐,不声不响地追着,摔倒了就咬着牙、耐心地爬起来,或者在头晕得支持不住的时候用手揉揉眼睛。
  这么一追,竟然穿过了谷底的沼地,发现了潮湿苔癣上的一些脚樱。这不是他自己的脚营,他看得出来。一定是比尔的。不过他不能停下,因为母松鸡正在向前跑。他得先把它捉住,然后回来察看。
  母松鸡给追得精疲力尽;可是他自己也累坏了。它歪着身子倒在地上喘个不停,他也歪着倒在地上喘个不停,只隔着十来尺,然而没有力气爬过去。等到他恢复过来,它也恢复过来了,他的饿手才伸过去,它就扑着翅膀,逃到了他抓不到的地方。这场追赶就这样继续下去。天黑了,它终于逃掉了。由于浑身软弱无力绊了一跤,头重脚轻地栽下去,划破了脸,包袱压在背上。他一动不动地过了好久,后来才翻过身,侧着躺在地上,上好表,在那儿一直躺到早晨。
  又是一个下雾的日子。他剩下的那条毯子已经有一半做了包脚布。他没有找到比尔的踪迹。可是没有关系。饿逼得他太厉害了——不过——不过他又想,是不是比尔也迷了路。走到中午的时候,累赘的包袱压得他受不了。于是他重新把金子分开,但这一次只把其中的一半倒在地上。到了下午,他把剩下来的那一点也扔掉了,现在,他只有半条毯子、那个白铁罐子和那支枪。
  一种幻觉开始折磨他。他觉得有十足的把握,他还剩下一粒子佳节又重阳弹。它就在枪膛里,而他一直没有想起。可是另一方面,他也始终明自,枪膛里是空的。但这种幻觉总是萦回不散。他斗争了几个钟头,想摆脱这种幻觉,后来他就打开枪,结果面对着空枪膛。这样的失望非常痛苦,仿佛他真的希望会找到那粒子佳节又重阳弹似的。
  经过半个钟头的跋涉之后,这种幻觉又出现了。他于是又跟它斗争,而它又缠住他不放,直到为了摆脱它,他又打开枪膛打消自己的念头。有时候,他越想越远,只好一面凭本能自动向前跋涉,一面让种种奇怪的念头和狂想,象蛀虫一样地啃他的脑髓。但是这类脱离现实的逻思大都维持不了多久,因为饥饿的痛苦总会把他刺醒。有一次,正在这样瞎想的时候,他忽然猛地惊醒过来,看到一个几乎叫他昏倒的东西。他象酒醉一样地晃荡着,好让自己不致跌倒。在他面前站着一匹马。一匹马!他简直不能相信自己的眼睛。他觉得眼前一片漆黑,霎时间金星乱迸。他狼狠地揉着眼睛,让自己瞧瞧清楚,原来它并不是马,而是一头大棕熊。这个畜生正在用一种好战的好奇眼光仔细察看着他。
  这个人举枪上肩,把枪举起一半,就记起来。他放下枪,从屁般后面的镶珠刀鞘里拔出猎刀。他面前是肉和生命。他用大拇指试试刀刃。刀刃很锋利。刀尖也很锋利。
  他本来会扑到熊身上,把它杀了的。可是他的心却开始了那种警告性的猛跳。接着又向上猛顶,迅速跳动,头象给铁箍箍紧了似的,脑子里渐渐感到一阵昏迷。
  他的不顾一切的勇气已经给一阵汹涌起伏的恐惧驱散了。处在这样衰弱的境况中,如果那个畜生攻击他,怎么办?
  他只好尽力摆出极其威风的样子,握紧猎刀,狠命地盯着那头熊。它笨拙地向前挪了两步,站直了,发出试探性的咆哮。
  如果这个人逃跑,它就追上去;不过这个人并没有逃跑。现在,由于恐惧而产生的勇气已经使他振奋起来。同样地,他也在咆哮,而且声音非常凶野,非常可怕,发出那种生死攸关、紧紧地缠着生命的根基的恐惧。
  那头熊慢慢向旁边挪动了一下,发出威胁的咆哮,连它自己也给这个站得笔直、毫不害怕的神秘动物吓住了。可是这个人仍旧不动。他象石像一样地站着,直到危险过去,他才猛然哆嗦了一阵,倒在潮湿的苔藓里。
  他重新振作起来,继续前进,心里又产生了一种新的恐惧。这不是害怕他会束手无策地死于断粮的恐惧,而是害怕饥饿还没有耗尽他的最后一点求生力,他已经给凶残地摧毁了。这地方的狼很多。狼嗥的声音在荒原上飘来飘去,在空中交织成一片危险的罗网,好象伸手就可以摸到,吓得他不由举起双手,把它向后推去,仿佛它是给风刮紧了的帐篷。
  那些狼,时常三三两两地从他前面走过。但是都避着他。一则因为它们为数不多,此外,它们要找的是不会搏斗的驯鹿,而这个直立走路的奇怪动物却可能既会抓又会咬。
  傍晚时他碰到了许多零乱的骨头,说明狼在这儿咬死过一头野兽。这些残骨在一个钟头以前还是一头小驯鹿,一面尖叫,一面飞奔,非常活跃。他端详着这些骨头,它们已经给啃得精光发亮,其中只有一部份还没有死去的细胞泛着粉红色。难道在天黑之前,他也可能变成这个样子吗?生命就是这样吗,呃?真是一种空虚的、转瞬即逝的东西。只有活着才感到痛苦。死并没有什么难过。死就等于睡觉。它意味着结束,休息。那么,为什么他不甘心死呢?
  但是,他对这些大道理想得并不长久。他蹲在苔藓地上,嘴里衔着一根骨头,吮吸着仍然使骨头微微泛红的残余生命。甜蜜蜜的肉味,跟回忆一样隐隐约约,不可捉摸,却引得他要发疯。他咬紧骨头,使劲地嚼。有时他咬碎了一点骨头,有时却咬碎了自己的牙,于是他就用岩石来砸骨头,把它捣成了酱,然后吞到肚里。匆忙之中,有时也砸到自己的指头,使他一时感到惊奇的是,石头砸了他的指头他并不觉得很痛。
  接着下了几天可怕的雨雪。他不知道什么时候露宿,什么时候收拾行李。他白天黑夜都在赶路。他摔倒在哪里就在哪里休息,一到垂危的生命火花闪烁起来,微微燃烧的时候,就慢慢向前走。他已经不再象人那样挣扎了。逼着他向前走的,是他的生命,因为它不愿意死。他也不再痛苦了。他的神经已经变得迟钝麻木,他的脑子里则充满了怪异的幻象和美妙的梦境。
  不过,他老是吮吸着,咀嚼着那只小驯鹿的碎骨头,这是他收集起来随身带着的一点残屑。他不再翻山越岭了,只是自动地顺着一条流过一片宽阔的浅谷的溪水走去。可是他既没有看见溪流,也没有看到山谷。他只看到幻象。他的灵魂和肉体虽然在并排向前走,向前爬,但它们是分开的,它们之间的联系已经非常微弱。
  有一天,他醒过来,神智清楚地仰卧在一块岩石上。太阳明朗暖和。他听到远处有一群小驯鹿尖叫的声音。他只隐隐约约地记得下过雨,刮过风,落过雪,至于他究竟被暴风雨吹打了两天或者两个星期,那他就不知道了。
  他一动不动地躺了好一会,温和的太阳照在他身上,使他那受苦受难的身体充满了暖意。这是一个晴天,他想道。
  也许,他可以想办法确定自己的方位。他痛苦地使劲偏过身子;下面是一条流得很慢的很宽的河。他觉得这条河很陌生,真使他奇怪。他慢慢地顺着河望去,宽广的河湾婉蜒在许多光秃秃的小荒山之间,比他往日碰到的任何小山都显得更光秃,更荒凉,更低矮。他于是慢慢地,从容地,毫不激动地,或者至多也是抱着一种极偶然的兴致,顺着这条奇怪的河流的方向,向天际望去,只看到它注入一片明亮光辉的大海。他仍然不激动。太奇怪了,他想道,这是幻象吧,也许是海市蜃楼吧——多半是幻象,是他的错乱的神经搞出来的把戏。后来,他又看到光亮的大海上停泊着一只大船,就更加相信这是幻象。他眼睛闭了一会再睁开。奇怪,这种幻象竟会这样地经久不散!然而并不奇怪,他知道,在荒原中心绝不会有什么大海,大船,正象他知道他的空枪里没有子佳节又重阳弹一样。
  他听到背后有一种吸鼻子的声音——仿佛喘不出气或者咳嗽的声音。由于身体极端虚弱和僵硬,他极慢极慢地翻一个身。他看不出附近有什么东西,但是他耐心地等着。
  又听到了吸鼻子和咳嗽的声音,离他不到二十尺远的两块岩石之间,他隐约看到一只灰狼的头。那双尖耳朵并不象别的狼那样竖得笔挺;它的眼睛昏暗无光,布满血丝;脑袋好象无力地、苦恼地耷拉着。这个畜生不断地在太阳光里霎眼。它好象有玻正当他瞧着它的时候,它又发出了吸鼻子和咳嗽的声音。
  至少,这总是真的,他一面想,一面又翻过身,以便瞧见先前给幻象遮住的现实世界。可是,远处仍旧是一片光辉的大海,那条船仍然清晰可见。难道这是真的吗?他闭着眼睛,想了好一会,毕竟想出来了。他一直在向北偏东走,他已经离开狄斯分水岭,走到了铜矿谷。这条流得很慢的宽广的河就是铜矿河。那片光辉的大海是北冰洋。那条船是一艘捕鲸船,本来应该驶往麦肯齐河口,可是偏了东,太偏东了,目前停泊在加冕湾里。他记起了很久以前他看到的那张赫德森湾公司的地图,现在,对他来说,这完全是清清楚楚,入情入理的。
  他坐起来,想着切身的事情。裹在脚上的毯子已经磨穿了,他的脚破得没有一处好肉。最后一条毯子已经用完了。枪和猎刀也不见了。帽子不知在什么地方丢了,帽圈里那小包火柴也一块丢了,不过,贴胸放在烟草袋里的那包用油纸包着的火柴还在,而且是干的。他瞧了一下表。时针指着十一点,表仍然在走。很清楚,他一直没有忘了上表。
  他很冷静,很沉着。虽然身体衰弱已极,但是并没有痛苦的感觉。他一点也不饿。甚至想到食物也不会产生快感。
  现在,他无论做什么,都只凭理智。他齐膝盖撕下了两截裤腿,用来裹脚。他总算还保住了那个白铁罐子。他打算先喝点热水,然后再开始向船走去,他已经料到这是一段可怕的路程。
  他的动作很慢。他好象半身不遂地哆嗦着。等到他预备去收集干苔的时候,他才发现自己已经站不起来了。他试了又试,后来只好死了这条心,他用手和膝盖支着爬来爬去。有一次,他爬到了那只病狼附近。那个畜生,一面很不情愿地避开他,一面用那条好象连弯一下的力气都没有的舌头舐着自己的牙床。这个人注意到它的舌头并不是通常那种健康的红色,而是一种暗黄色,好象蒙着一层粗糙的、半干的粘膜。
  这个人喝下热水之后,觉得自己可以站起来了,甚至还可以象想象中一个快死的人那样走路了。他每走一两分钟,就不得不停下来休息一会。他的步子软弱无力,很不稳,就象跟在他后面的那只狼一样又软又不稳;这天晚上,等到黑夜笼罩了光辉的大海的时候,他知道他和大海之间的距离只缩短了不到四哩。
  这一夜,他总是听到那只病狼咳嗽的声音,有时候,他又听到了一群小驯鹿的叫声。他周围全是生命,不过那是强壮的生命,非常活跃而健康的生命,同时他也知道,那只病狼所以要紧跟着他这个病人,是希望他先死。早晨,他一挣开眼睛就看到这个畜生正用一种如饥似渴的眼光瞪着他。它夹着尾巴蹲在那儿,好象一条可怜的倒楣的狗。早晨的寒风吹得它直哆嗦,每逢这个人对它勉强发出一种低声咕噜似的吆喝,它就无精打采地呲着牙。
  太阳亮堂堂地升了起来,这一早晨,他一直在绊绊跌跌地,朝着光辉的海洋上的那条船走。天气好极了。这是高纬度地方的那种短暂的晚秋。它可能连续一个星期。也许明后天就会结束。
  下午,这个人发现了一些痕迹,那是另外一个人留下的,他不是走,而是爬的。他认为可能是比尔,不过他只是漠不关心地想想罢了。他并没有什么好奇心。事实上,他早已失去了兴致和热情。他已经不再感到痛苦了。他的胃和神经都睡着了。但是内在的生命却逼着他前进。他非常疲倦,然而他的生命却不愿死去。正因为生命不愿死,他才仍然要吃沼地上的浆果和鲦鱼,喝热水,一直提防着那只病狼。
  他跟着那个挣扎前进的人的痕迹向前走去,不久就走到了尽头——潮湿的苔藓上摊着几根才啃光的骨头,附近还有许多狼的脚樱他发现了一个跟他自己的那个一模一样的厚实的鹿皮口袋,但已经给尖利的牙齿咬破了。他那无力的手已经拿不动这样沉重的袋子了,可是他到底把它提起来了。比尔至死都带着它。哈哈!他可以嘲笑比尔了。
  他可以活下去,把它带到光辉的海洋里那条船上。他的笑声粗厉可怕,跟乌鸦的怪叫一样,而那条病狼也随着他,一阵阵地惨嗥。突然间,他不笑了。如果这真是比尔的骸骨,他怎么能嘲笑比尔呢;如果这些有红有白,啃得精光的骨头,真是比尔的话?
  他转身走开了。不错,比尔抛弃了他;但是他不愿意拿走那袋金子,也不愿意吮吸比尔的骨头。不过,如果事情掉个头的话,比尔也许会做得出来的,他一面摇摇晃晃地前进,一面暗暗想着这些情形。
  他走到了一个水坑旁边。就在他弯下腰找鲦鱼的时候,他猛然仰起头,好象给戳了一下。他瞧见了自己反映在水里的险。脸色之可怕,竟然使他一时恢复了知觉,感到震惊了。这个坑里有三条鲦鱼,可是坑太大,不好舀;他用白铁罐子去捉,试了几次都不成,后来他就不再试了。他怕自己会由于极度虚弱,跌进去淹死。而且,也正是因为这一层,他才没有跨上沿着沙洲并排漂去的木头,让河水带着他走。
  这一天,他和那条船之间的距离缩短了三哩;第二天,又缩短了两哩——因为现在他是跟比尔先前一样地在爬;到了第五天末尾,他发现那条船离开他仍然有七哩,而他每天连一哩也爬不到了。幸亏天气仍然继续放晴,他于是继续爬行,继续晕倒,辗转不停地爬;而那头狼也始终跟在他后面,不断地咳嗽和哮喘。他的膝盖已经和他的脚一样鲜血淋漓,尽管他撕下了身上的衬衫来垫膝盖,他背后的苔藓和岩石上仍然留下了一路血渍。有一次,他回头看见病狼正饿得发慌地舐着他的血渍、他不由得清清楚楚地看出了自己可能遭到的结局——除非——除非他干掉这只狼。于是,—幕从来没有演出过的残酷的求生悲剧就开始了——病人一路爬着,病狼一路跛行着,两个生灵就这样在荒原里拖着垂死的躯壳,相互猎取着对方的生命。
  如果这是一条健康的狼,那末,他觉得倒也没有多大关系;可是,一想到自己要喂这么一只令人作呕、只剩下一口气的狼,他就觉得非常厌恶。他就是这样吹毛求疵。现在,他脑子里又开始胡思乱想,又给幻象弄得迷迷糊糊,而神智清楚的时候也愈来愈少,愈来愈短。
  有一次,他从昏迷中给一种贴着他耳朵喘息的声音惊醒了。那只狼一跛一跛地跳回去,它因为身体虚弱,一失足摔了一跤。样子可笑极了,可是他一点也不觉得有趣。他甚至也不害怕。他已经到了这一步,根本谈不到那些。不过,这一会,他的头脑却很清醒,于是他躺在那儿,仔细地考虑。
  那条船离他不过四哩路,他把眼睛擦净之后,可以很清楚地看到它;同时,他还看出了一条在光辉的大海里破浪前进的小船的白帆。可是,无论如何他也爬不完这四哩路。这一点,他是知道的,而且知道以后,他还非常镇静。他知道他连半哩路也爬不了。不过,他仍然要活下去。在经历了千辛万苦之后,他居然会死掉,那未免太不合理了。命运对他实在太苛刻了,然而,尽管奄奄一息,他还是不情愿死。也许,这种想法完全是发疯,不过,就是到了死神的铁掌里,他仍然要反抗它,不肯死。
  他闭上眼睛,极其小心地让自己镇静下去。疲倦象涨潮一样,从他身体的各处涌上来,但是他刚强地打起精神,绝不让这种令人窒息的疲倦把他淹没。这种要命的疲倦,很象一片大海,一涨再涨,一点一点地淹没他的意识。有时候,他几乎完全给淹没了,他只能用无力的双手划着,漂游过那黑茫茫的一片;可是,有时候,他又会凭着一种奇怪的心灵作用,另外找到一丝毅力,更坚强地划着。
  他一动不动地仰面躺着,现在,他能够听到病狼一呼一吸地喘着气,慢慢地向他逼近。它愈来愈近,总是在向他逼近,好象经过了无穷的时间,但是他始终不动。它已经到了他耳边。那条粗糙的干舌头正象砂纸一样地磨擦着他的两腮。他那两只手一下子伸了出来——或者,至少也是他凭着毅力要它们伸出来的。他的指头弯得象鹰爪一样,可是抓了个空。敏捷和准确是需要力气的,他没有这种力气。
  那只狼的耐心真是可怕。这个人的耐心也一样可怕。
  这一天,有一半时间他一直躺着不动,尽力和昏迷斗争,等着那个要把他吃掉、而他也希望能吃掉的东西。有时候,疲倦的浪潮涌上来,淹没了他,他会做起很长的梦;然而在整个过程中,不论醒着或是做梦,他都在等着那种喘息和那条粗糙的舌头来舐他。
  他并没有听到这种喘息,他只是从梦里慢慢苏醒过来,觉得有条舌头在顺着他的一只手舐去。他静静地等着。狼牙轻轻地扣在他手上了;扣紧了;狼正在尽最后一点力量把牙齿咬进它等了很久的东西里面。可是这个人也等了很久,那只给咬破了的手也抓住了狼的牙床。于是,慢慢地,就在狼无力地挣扎着,他的手无力地掐着的时候,他的另一只手已经慢慢摸过来,一下把狼抓祝五分钟之后,这个人已经把全身的重量都压在狼的身上。他的手的力量虽然还不足以把狼掐死,可是他的脸已经紧紧地压住了狼的咽喉,嘴里已经满是狼毛。半小时后,这个人感到一小股暖和的液体慢馒流进他的喉咙。这东西并不好吃,就象硬灌到他胃里的铅液,而且是纯粹凭着意志硬灌下去的。后来,这个人翻了一个身,仰面睡着了。
  捕鲸船“白德福号”上,有几个科学考察队的人员。他们从甲板上望见岸上有一个奇怪的东西。它正在向沙滩下面的水面挪动。他们没法分清它是哪一类动物,但是,因为他们都是研究科学的人,他们就乘了船旁边的一条捕鲸艇,到岸上去察看。接着,他们发现了一个活着的动物,可是很难把它称作人。它已经瞎了,失去了知觉。它就象一条大虫子在地上蠕动着前进。它用的力气大半都不起作用,但是它老不停,它一面摇晃,一面向前扭动,照它这样,一点钟大概可以爬上二十尺。
  三星期以后,这个人躺在捕鲸船“白德福号”的一个铺位上,眼泪顺着他的削瘦的面颊往下淌,他说出他是谁和他经过的一切。同时,他又含含糊糊地、不连贯地谈到了他的母亲,谈到了阳光灿烂的南加利福尼亚,以及桔树和花丛中的他的家园。
  没过几天,他就跟那些科学家和船员坐在一张桌子旁边吃饭了,他馋得不得了地望着面前这么多好吃的东西,焦急地瞧着它溜进别人口里。每逢别人咽下一口的时候,他眼睛里就会流露出一种深深惋惜的表情。他的神志非常清醒,可是,每逢吃饭的时候,他免不了要恨这些人。他给恐惧缠住了,他老怕粮食维持不了多久。他向厨子,船舱里的服务员和船长打听食物的贮藏量。他们对他保证了无数次,但是他仍然不相信,仍然会狡猾地溜到贮藏室附近亲自窥探。
  看起来,这个人正在发胖。他每天都会胖一点。那批研究科学的人都摇着头,提出他们的理论。他们限制了这个人的饭量,可是他的腰围仍然在加大,身体胖得惊人。
  水手们都咧着嘴笑。他们心里有数。等到这批科学家派人来监视他的时候,他们也知道了。他们看到他在早饭以后萎靡不振地走着,而且会象叫化子似地,向一个水手伸出手。那个水手笑了笑,递给他一块硬面包,他贪婪地把它拿住,象守财奴瞅着金子般地瞅着它,然后把它塞到衬衫里面。别的咧着嘴笑的水手也送给他同样的礼品。
  这些研究科学的人很谨慎。他们随他去。但是他们常常暗暗检查他的床铺。那上面摆着一排排的硬面包,褥子也给硬面包塞得满满的;每一个角落里都塞满了硬面包。然而他的神志非常清醒。他是在防备可能发生的另一次饥荒——就是这么回事。研究科学的人说,他会恢复常态的;事实也是如此,“白德福号”的铁锚还没有在旧金山湾里隆隆地抛下去,他就正常了。

Love Of Life(6)

After he had drunk a quart of hot water the man found he was able to stand, and even to walk as well as a dying man might be supposed to walk. Every minute or so he was compelled to rest. His steps were feeble and uncertain, just as the wolf's that trailed him were feeble and uncertain; and that night, when the shining sea was blotted out by blackness, he knew he was nearer to it by no more than four miles.


Throughout the night he heard the cough of the sick wolf, and now and then the squawking of the caribou calves. There was life all around him, but it was strong life, very much alive and well, and he knew the sick wolf clung to the sick man's trail in the hope that the man would die first. In the morning, on opening his eyes, he beheld it regarding him with a wistful and hungry stare. It stood crouched, with tail between its legs, like a miserable and woe-begone dog. It shivered in the chill morning wind, and grinned dispiritedly when the man spoke to it in a voice that achieved no more than a hoarse whisper.


The sun rose brightly, and all morning the man tottered and fell toward the ship on the shining sea. The weather was perfect. It was the brief Indian Summer of the high latitudes. It might last a week. To-morrow or next day it might be gone.


In the afternoon the man came upon a trail. It was of another man, who did not walk, but who dragged himself on all fours. The man thought it might be Bill, but he thought in a dull, uninterested way. He had no curiosity. In fact, sensation and emotion had left him. He was no longer susceptible to pain. Stomach and nerves had gone to sleep. Yet the life that was in him drove him on. He was very weary, but it refused to die. It was because it refused to die that he still ate muskeg berries and minnows, drank his hot water, and kept a wary eye on the sick wolf.


He followed the trail of the other man who dragged himself along, and soon came to the end of it -- a few fresh-picked bones where the soggy moss was marked by the foot-pads of many wolves. He saw a squat moose-hide sack, mate to his own, which had been torn by sharp teeth. He picked it up, though its weight was almost too much for his feeble fingers. Bill had carried it to the last. Ha! ha! He would have the laugh on Bill. He would survive and carry it to the ship in the shining sea. His mirth was hoarse and ghastly, like a raven's croak, and the sick wolf joined him, howling lugubriously. The man ceased suddenly. How could he have the laugh on Bill if that were Bill; if those bones, so pinky-white and clean, were Bill?


He turned away. Well, Bill had deserted him; but he would not take the gold, nor would he suck Bill's bones. Bill would have, though, had it been the other way around, he mused as he staggered on. He came to a pool of water. Stooping over in quest of minnows, he jerked his head back as though he had been stung. He had caught sight of his reflected face. So horrible was it that sensibility awoke long enough to be shocked. There were three minnows in the pool, which was too large to drain; and after several ineffectual attempts to catch them in the tin bucket he forbore. He was afraid, because of his great weakness, that he might fall in and drown. It was for this reason that he did not trust himself to the river astride one of the many drift-logs which lined its sand-spits.


That day he decreased the distance between him and the ship by three miles; the next day by two -- for he was crawling now as Bill had crawled; and the end of the fifth day found the ship still seven miles away and him unable to make even a mile a day. Still the Indian Summer held on, and he continued to crawl and faint, turn and turn about; and ever the sick wolf coughed and wheezed at his heels. His knees had become raw meat like his feet, and though he padded them with the shirt from his back it was a red track he left behind him on the moss and stones. Once, glancing back, he saw the wolf licking hungrily his bleeding trail, and he saw sharply what his own end might be -- unless -- unless he could get the wolf. Then began as grim a tragedy of existence as was ever played -- a sick man that crawled, a sick wolf that limped, two creatures dragging their dying carcasses across the desolation and hunting each other's lives.


Had it been a well wolf, it would not have mattered so much to the man; but the thought of going to feed the maw of that loathsome and all but dead thing was repugnant to him. He was finicky. His mind had begun to wander again, and to be perplexed by hallucinations, while his lucid intervals grew rarer and shorter.


He was awakened once from a faint by a wheeze close in his ear. The wolf leaped lamely back, losing its footing and falling in its weakness. It was ludicrous, but he was not amused. Nor was he even afraid. He was too far gone for that. But his mind was for the moment clear, and he lay and considered. The ship was no more than four miles away. He could see it quite distinctly when he rubbed the mists out of his eyes, and he could see the white sail of a small boat cutting the water of the shining sea. But he could never crawl those four miles. He knew that, and was very calm in the knowledge. He knew that he could not crawl half a mile. And yet he wanted to live. It was unreasonable that he should die after all he had undergone. Fate asked too much of him. And, dying, he declined to die. It was stark madness, perhaps, but in the very grip of Death he defied Death and refused to die.


He closed his eyes and composed himself with infinite precaution. He steeled himself to keep above the suffocating languor that lapped like a rising tide through all the wells of his being. It was very like a sea, this deadly languor, that rose and rose and drowned his consciousness bit by bit. Sometimes he was all but submerged, swimming through oblivion with a faltering stroke; and again, by some strange alchemy of soul, he would find another shred of will and strike out more strongly.


Without movement he lay on his back, and he could hear, slowly drawing near and nearer, the wheezing intake and output of the sick wolf's breath. It drew closer, ever closer, through an infinitude of time, and he did not move. It was at his ear. The harsh dry tongue grated like sandpaper against his cheek. His hands shot out -- or at least he willed them to shoot out. The fingers were curved like talons, but they closed on empty air. Swiftness and certitude require strength, and the man had not this strength.


The patience of the wolf was terrible. The man's patience was no less terrible. For half a day he lay motionless, fighting off unconsciousness and waiting for the thing that was to feed upon him and upon which he wished to feed. Sometimes the languid sea rose over him and he dreamed long dreams; but ever through it all, waking and dreaming, he waited for the wheezing breath and the harsh caress of the tongue.


He did not hear the breath, and he slipped slowly from some dream to the feel of the tongue along his hand. He waited. The fangs pressed softly; the pressure increased; the wolf was exerting its last strength in an effort to sink teeth in the food for which it had waited so long. But the man had waited long, and the lacerated hand closed on the jaw. Slowly, while the wolf struggled feebly and the hand clutched feebly, the other hand crept across to a grip. Five minutes later the whole weight of the man's body was on top of the wolf. The hands had not sufficient strength to choke the wolf, but the face of the man was pressed close to the throat of the wolf and the mouth of the man was full of hair. At the end of half an hour the man was aware of a warm trickle in his throat. It was not pleasant. It was like molten lead being forced into his stomach, and it was forced by his will alone. Later the man rolled over on his back and slept.


There were some members of a scientific expedition on the whale-ship Bedford. From the deck they remarked a strange object on the shore. It was moving down the beach toward the water. They were unable to classify it, and, being scientific men, they climbed into the whale-boat alongside and went ashore to see. And they saw something that was alive but which could hardly be called a man. It was blind, unconscious. It squirmed along the ground like some monstrous worm. Most of its efforts were ineffectual, but it was persistent, and it writhed and twisted and went ahead perhaps a score of feet an hour.


Three weeks afterward the man lay in a bunk on the whale-ship Bedford, and with tears streaming down his wasted cheeks told who he was and what he had undergone. He also babbled incoherently of his mother, of sunny Southern California, and a home among the orange groves and flowers.


The days were not many after that when he sat at table with the scientific men and ship's officers. He gloated over the spectacle of so much food, watching it anxiously as it went into the mouths of others. With the disappearance of each mouthful an expression of deep regret came into his eyes. He was quite sane, yet he hated those men at meal-time. He was haunted by a fear that the food would not last. He inquired of the cook, the cabin-boy, the captain, concerning the food stores. They reassured him countless times; but he could not believe them, and pried cunningly about the lazarette to see with his own eyes.


It was noticed that the man was getting fat. He grew stouter with each day. The scientific men shook their heads and theorized. They limited the man at his meals, but still his girth increased and he swelled prodigiously under his shirt.


The sailors grinned. They knew. And when the scientific men set a watch on the man, they knew too. They saw him slouch for'ard after breakfast, and, like a mendicant, with outstretched palm, accost a sailor. The sailor grinned and passed him a fragment of sea biscuit. He clutched it avariciously, looked at it as a miser looks at gold, and thrust it into his shirt bosom. Similar were the donations from other grinning sailors. The scientific men were discreet. They let him alone. But they privily examined his bunk. It was lined with hardtack; the mattress was stuffed with hardtack; every nook and cranny was filled with hardtack. Yet he was sane. He was taking precautions against another possible famine -- that was all. He would recover from it, the scientific men said; and he did, ere the Bedford's anchor rumbled down in San Francisco Bay.


 

Love Of Life(5)

This was a day of fog, and this day hunger awoke in him again. He was very weak and was afflicted with a giddiness which at times blinded him. It was no uncommon thing now for him to stumble and fall; and stumbling once, he fell squarely into a ptarmigan nest. There were four newly hatched chicks, a day old -- little specks of pulsating life no more than a mouthful; and he ate them ravenously, thrusting them alive into his mouth and crunching them like egg-shells between his teeth. The mother ptarmigan beat about him with great outcry. He used his gun as a club with which to knock her over, but she dodged out of reach. He threw stones at her and with one chance shot broke a wing. Then she fluttered away, running, trailing the broken wing, with him in pursuit. 


The little chicks had no more than whetted his appetite. He hopped and bobbed clumsily along on his injured ankle, throwing stones and screaming hoarsely at times; at other times hopping and bobbing silently along, picking himself up grimly and patiently when he fell, or rubbing his eyes with his hand when the giddiness threatened to overpower him. 


The chase led him across swampy ground in the bottom of the valley, and he came upon footprints in the soggy moss. They were not his own -- he could see that. They must be Bill's. But he could not stop, for the mother ptarmigan was running on. He would catch her first, then he would return and investigate. 


He exhausted the mother ptarmigan; but he exhausted himself. She lay panting on her side. He lay panting on his side, a dozen feet away, unable to crawl to her. And as he recovered she recovered, fluttering out of reach as his hungry hand went out to her. The chase was resumed. Night settled down and she escaped. He stumbled from weakness and pitched head foremost on his face, cutting his cheek, his pack upon his back. He did not move for a long while; then he rolled over on his side, wound his watch, and lay there until morning. 


Another day of fog. Half of his last blanket had gone into foot-wrappings. He failed to pick up Bill's trail. It did not matter. His hunger was driving him too compellingly -- only -- only he wondered if Bill, too, were lost. By midday the irk of his pack became too oppressive. Again he divided the gold, this time merely spilling half of it on the ground. In the afternoon he threw the rest of it away, there remaining to him only the half-blanket, the tin bucket, and the rifle. 


An hallucination began to trouble him. He felt confident that one cartridge remained to him. It was in the chamber of the rifle and he had overlooked it. On the other hand, he knew all the time that the chamber was empty. But the hallucination persisted. He fought it off for hours, then threw his rifle open and was confronted with emptiness. The disappointment was as bitter as though he had really expected to find the cartridge. 


He plodded on for half an hour, when the hallucination arose again. Again he fought it, and still it persisted, till for very relief he opened his rifle to unconvince himself. At times his mind wandered farther afield, and he plodded on, a mere automaton, strange conceits and whimsicalities gnawing at his brain like worms. But these excursions out of the real were of brief duration, for ever the pangs of the hunger-bite called him back. He was jerked back abruptly once from such an excursion by a sight that caused him nearly to faint. He reeled and swayed, doddering like a drunken man to keep from falling. Before him stood a horse. A horse! He could not believe his eyes. A thick mist was in them, intershot with sparkling points of light. He rubbed his eyes savagely to clear his vision, and beheld, not a horse, but a great brown bear. The animal was studying him with bellicose curiosity. 


The man had brought his gun halfway to his shoulder before he realized. He lowered it and drew his hunting-knife from its beaded sheath at his hip. Before him was meat and life. He ran his thumb along the edge of his knife. It was sharp. The point was sharp. He would fling himself upon the bear and kill it. But his heart began its warning thump, thump, thump. Then followed the wild upward leap and tattoo of flutters, the pressing as of an iron band about his forehead, the creeping of the dizziness into his brain. 


His desperate courage was evicted by a great surge of fear. In his weakness, what if the animal attacked him? He drew himself up to his most imposing stature, gripping the knife and staring hard at the bear. The bear advanced clumsily a couple of steps, reared up, and gave vent to a tentative growl. If the man ran, he would run after him; but the man did not run. He was animated now with the courage of fear. He, too, growled, savagely, terribly, voicing the fear that is to life germane and that lies twisted about life's deepest roots. 


The bear edged away to one side, growling menacingly, himself appalled by this mysterious creature that appeared upright and unafraid. But the man did not move. He stood like a statue till the danger was past, when he yielded to a fit of trembling and sank down into the wet moss. 


He pulled himself together and went on, afraid now in a new way. It was not the fear that he should die passively from lack of food, but that he should be destroyed violently before starvation had exhausted the last particle of the endeavor in him that made toward surviving. There were the wolves. Back and forth across the desolation drifted their howls, weaving the very air into a fabric of menace that was so tangible that he found himself, arms in the air, pressing it back from him as it might be the walls of a wind-blown tent. 


Now and again the wolves, in packs of two and three, crossed his path. But they sheered clear of him. They were not in sufficient numbers, and besides they were hunting the caribou, which did not battle, while this strange creature that walked erect might scratch and bite. 


In the late afternoon he came upon scattered bones where the wolves had made a kill. The d bris had been a caribou calf an hour before, squawking and running and very much alive. He contemplated the bones, clean-picked and polished, pink with the cell-life in them which had not yet died. Could it possibly be that he might be that ere the day was done! Such was life, eh? A vain and fleeting thing. It was only life that pained. There was no hurt in death. To die was to sleep. It meant cessation, rest. Then why was he not content to die? 


But he did not moralize long. He was squatting in the moss, a bone in his mouth, sucking at the shreds of life that still dyed it faintly pink. The sweet meaty taste, thin and elusive almost as a memory, maddened him. He closed his jaws on the bones and crunched. Sometimes it was the bone that broke, sometimes his teeth. Then he crushed the bones between rocks, pounded them to a pulp, and swallowed them. He pounded his fingers, too, in his haste, and yet found a moment in which to feel surprise at the fact that his fingers did not hurt much when caught under the descending rock. 


Came frightful days of snow and rain. He did not know when he made camp, when he broke camp. He travelled in the night as much as in the day. He rested wherever he fell, crawled on whenever the dying life in him flickered up and burned less dimly. He, as a man, no longer strove. It was the life in him, unwilling to die, that drove him on. He did not suffer. His nerves had become blunted, numb, while his mind was filled with weird visions and delicious dreams. 


But ever he sucked and chewed on the crushed bones of the caribou calf, the least remnants of which he had gathered up and carried with him. He crossed no more hills or divides, but automatically followed a large stream which flowed through a wide and shallow valley. He did not see this stream nor this valley. He saw nothing save visions. Soul and body walked or crawled side by side, yet apart, so slender was the thread that bound them. 


He awoke in his right mind, lying on his back on a rocky ledge. The sun was shining bright and warm. Afar off he heard the squawking of caribou calves. He was aware of vague memories of rain and wind and snow, but whether he had been beaten by the storm for two days or two weeks he did not know. 


For some time he lay without movement, the genial sunshine pouring upon him and saturating his miserable body with its warmth. A fine day, he thought. Perhaps he could manage to locate himself. By a painful effort he rolled over on his side. Below him flowed a wide and sluggish river. Its unfamiliarity puzzled him. Slowly he followed it with his eyes, winding in wide sweeps among the bleak, bare hills, bleaker and barer and lower-lying than any hills he had yet encountered. Slowly, deliberately, without excitement or more than the most casual interest, he followed the course of the strange stream toward the sky-line and saw it emptying into a bright and shining sea. He was still unexcited. Most unusual, he thought, a vision or a mirage -- more likely a vision, a trick of his disordered mind. He was confirmed in this by sight of a ship lying at anchor in the midst of the shining sea. He closed his eyes for a while, then opened them. Strange how the vision persisted! Yet not strange. He knew there were no seas or ships in the heart of the barren lands, just as he had known there was no cartridge in the empty rifle. He heard a snuffle behind him -- a half-choking gasp or cough. Very slowly, because of his exceeding weakness and stiffness, he rolled over on his other side. He could see nothing near at hand, but he waited patiently. Again came the snuffle and cough, and outlined between two jagged rocks not a score of feet away he made out the gray head of a wolf. The sharp ears were not pricked so sharply as he had seen them on other wolves; the eyes were bleared and bloodshot, the head seemed to droop limply and forlornly. The animal blinked continually in the sunshine. It seemed sick. As he looked it snuffled and coughed again. 


This, at least, was real, he thought, and turned on the other side so that he might see the reality of the world which had been veiled from him before by the vision. But the sea still shone in the distance and the ship was plainly discernible. Was it reality, after all? He closed his eyes for a long while and thought, and then it came to him. He had been making north by east, away from the Dease Divide and into the Coppermine Valley. This wide and sluggish river was the Coppermine. That shining sea was the Arctic Ocean. That ship was a whaler, strayed east, far east, from the mouth of the Mackenzie, and it was lying at anchor in Coronation Gulf. He remembered the Hudson Bay Company chart he had seen long ago, and it was all clear and reasonable to him. 


He sat up and turned his attention to immediate affairs. He had worn through the blanket-wrappings, and his feet were shapeless lumps of raw meat. His last blanket was gone. Rifle and knife were both missing. He had lost his hat somewhere, with the bunch of matches in the band, but the matches against his chest were safe and dry inside the tobacco pouch and oil paper. He looked at his watch. It marked eleven o'clock and was still running. Evidently he had kept it wound.


He was calm and collected. Though extremely weak, he had no sensation of pain. He was not hungry. The thought of food was not even pleasant to him, and whatever he did was done by his reason alone. He ripped off his pants' legs to the knees and bound them about his feet. Somehow he had succeeded in retaining the tin bucket. He would have some hot water before he began what he foresaw was to be a terrible journey to the ship. 


His movements were slow. He shook as with a palsy. When he started to collect dry moss, he found he could not rise to his feet. He tried again and again, then contented himself with crawling about on hands and knees. Once he crawled near to the sick wolf. The animal dragged itself reluctantly out of his way, licking its chops with a tongue which seemed hardly to have the strength to curl. The man noticed that the tongue was not the customary healthy red. It was a yellowish brown and seemed coated with a rough and half-dry mucus. 



Love Of Life(4)

This was a day of fog, and this day hunger awoke in him again. He was very weak and was afflicted with a giddiness which at times blinded him. It was no uncommon thing now for him to stumble and fall; and stumbling once, he fell squarely into a ptarmigan nest. There were four newly hatched chicks, a day old - little specks of pulsating life no more than a mouthful; and he ate them ravenously, thrusting them alive into his mouth and crunching them like egg- shells between his teeth. The mother ptarmigan beat about him with great outcry. He used his gun as a club with which to knock her over, but she dodged out of reach. He threw stones at her and with one chance shot broke a wing. Then she fluttered away, running, trailing the broken wing, with him in pursuit.


The little chicks had no more than whetted his appetite. He hopped and bobbed clumsily along on his injured ankle, throwing stones and screaming hoarsely at times; at other times hopping and bobbing silently along, picking himself up grimly and patiently when he fell, or rubbing his eyes with his hand when the giddiness threatened to overpower him.


The chase led him across swampy ground in the bottom of the valley, and he came upon footprints in the soggy moss. They were not his own - he could see that. They must be Bill's. But he could not stop, for the mother ptarmigan was running on. He would catch her first, then he would return and investigate.


He exhausted the mother ptarmigan; but he exhausted himself. She lay panting on her side. He lay panting on his side, a dozen feet away, unable to crawl to her. And as he recovered she recovered, fluttering out of reach as his hungry hand went out to her. The chase was resumed. Night settled down and she escaped. He stumbled from weakness and pitched head foremost on his face, cutting his cheek, his pack upon his back. He did not move for a long while; then he rolled over on his side, wound his watch, and lay there until morning.


Another day of fog. Half of his last blanket had gone into foot- wrappings. He failed to pick up Bill's trail. It did not matter. His hunger was driving him too compellingly - only - only he wondered if Bill, too, were lost. By midday the irk of his pack became too oppressive. Again he divided the gold, this time merely spilling half of it on the ground. In the afternoon he threw the rest of it away, there remaining to him only the half-blanket, the tin bucket, and the rifle.


An hallucination began to trouble him. He felt confident that one cartridge remained to him. It was in the chamber of the rifle and he had overlooked it. On the other hand, he knew all the time that the chamber was empty. But the hallucination persisted. He fought it off for hours, then threw his rifle open and was confronted with emptiness. The disappointment was as bitter as though he had really expected to find the cartridge.


He plodded on for half an hour, when the hallucination arose again. Again he fought it, and still it persisted, till for very relief he opened his rifle to unconvince himself. At times his mind wandered farther afield, and he plodded on, a mere automaton, strange conceits and whimsicalities gnawing at his brain like worms. But these excursions out of the real were of brief duration, for ever the pangs of the hunger-bite called him back. He was jerked back abruptly once from such an excursion by a sight that caused him nearly to faint. He reeled and swayed, doddering like a drunken man to keep from falling. Before him stood a horse. A horse! He could not believe his eyes. A thick mist was in them, intershot with sparkling points of light. He rubbed his eyes savagely to clear his vision, and beheld, not a horse, but a great brown bear. The animal was studying him with bellicose curiosity.


The man had brought his gun halfway to his shoulder before he realized. He lowered it and drew his hunting-knife from its beaded sheath at his hip. Before him was meat and life. He ran his thumb along the edge of his knife. It was sharp. The point was sharp. He would fling himself upon the bear and kill it. But his heart began its warning thump, thump, thump. Then followed the wild upward leap and tattoo of flutters, the pressing as of an iron band about his forehead, the creeping of the dizziness into his brain.


His desperate courage was evicted by a great surge of fear. In his weakness, what if the animal attacked him? He drew himself up to his most imposing stature, gripping the knife and staring hard at the bear. The bear advanced clumsily a couple of steps, reared up, and gave vent to a tentative growl. If the man ran, he would run after him; but the man did not run. He was animated now with the courage of fear. He, too, growled, savagely, terribly, voicing the fear that is to life germane and that lies twisted about life's deepest roots.


The bear edged away to one side, growling menacingly, himself appalled by this mysterious creature that appeared upright and unafraid. But the man did not move. He stood like a statue till the danger was past, when he yielded to a fit of trembling and sank down into the wet moss.


He pulled himself together and went on, afraid now in a new way. It was not the fear that he should die passively from lack of food, but that he should be destroyed violently before starvation had exhausted the last particle of the endeavor in him that made toward surviving. There were the wolves. Back and forth across the desolation drifted their howls, weaving the very air into a fabric of menace that was so tangible that he found himself, arms in the air, pressing it back from him as it might be the walls of a wind- blown tent.


Now and again the wolves, in packs of two and three, crossed his path. But they sheered clear of him. They were not in sufficient numbers, and besides they were hunting the caribou, which did not battle, while this strange creature that walked erect might scratch and bite.


In the late afternoon he came upon scattered bones where the wolves had made a kill. The debris had been a caribou calf an hour before, squawking and running and very much alive. He contemplated the bones, clean-picked and polished, pink with the cell-life in them which had not yet died. Could it possibly be that he might be that ere the day was done! Such was life, eh? A vain and fleeting thing. It was only life that pained. There was no hurt in death. To die was to sleep. It meant cessation, rest. Then why was he not content to die?


But he did not moralize long. He was squatting in the moss, a bone in his mouth, sucking at the shreds of life that still dyed it faintly pink. The sweet meaty taste, thin and elusive almost as a memory, maddened him. He closed his jaws on the bones and crunched. Sometimes it was the bone that broke, sometimes his teeth. Then he crushed the bones between rocks, pounded them to a pulp, and swallowed them. He pounded his fingers, too, in his haste, and yet found a moment in which to feel surprise at the fact that his fingers did not hurt much when caught under the descending rock.


Came frightful days of snow and rain. He did not know when he made camp, when he broke camp. He travelled in the night as much as in the day. He rested wherever he fell, crawled on whenever the dying life in him flickered up and burned less dimly. He, as a man, no longer strove. It was the life in him, unwilling to die, that drove him on. He did not suffer. His nerves had become blunted, numb, while his mind was filled with weird visions and delicious dreams.


But ever he sucked and chewed on the crushed bones of the caribou calf, the least remnants of which he had gathered up and carried with him. He crossed no more hills or divides, but automatically followed a large stream which flowed through a wide and shallow valley. He did not see this stream nor this valley. He saw nothing save visions. Soul and body walked or crawled side by side, yet apart, so slender was the thread that bound them.


He awoke in his right mind, lying on his back on a rocky ledge. The sun was shining bright and warm. Afar off he heard the squawking of caribou calves. He was aware of vague memories of rain and wind and snow, but whether he had been beaten by the storm for two days or two weeks he did not know.



Love Of Life(3)

He was very weary and often wished to rest - to lie down and sleep; but he was continually driven on - not so much by his desire to gain the land of little sticks as by his hunger. He searched little ponds for frogs and dug up the earth with his nails for worms, though he knew in spite that neither frogs nor worms existed so far north.


He looked into every pool of water vainly, until, as the long twilight came on, he discovered a solitary fish, the size of a minnow, in such a pool. He plunged his arm in up to the shoulder, but it eluded him. He reached for it with both hands and stirred up the milky mud at the bottom. In his excitement he fell in, wetting himself to the waist. Then the water was too muddy to admit of his seeing the fish, and he was compelled to wait until the sediment had settled.


The pursuit was renewed, till the water was again muddied. But he could not wait. He unstrapped the tin bucket and began to bale the pool. He baled wildly at first, splashing himself and flinging the water so short a distance that it ran back into the pool. He worked more carefully, striving to be cool, though his heart was pounding against his chest and his hands were trembling. At the end of half an hour the pool was nearly dry. Not a cupful of water remained. And there was no fish. He found a hidden crevice among the stones through which it had escaped to the adjoining and larger pool - a pool which he could not empty in a night and a day. Had he known of the crevice, he could have closed it with a rock at the beginning and the fish would have been his.


Thus he thought, and crumpled up and sank down upon the wet earth. At first he cried softly to himself, then he cried loudly to the pitiless desolation that ringed him around; and for a long time after he was shaken by great dry sobs.


He built a fire and warmed himself by drinking quarts of hot water, and made camp on a rocky ledge in the same fashion he had the night before. The last thing he did was to see that his matches were dry and to wind his watch. The blankets were wet and clammy. His ankle pulsed with pain. But he knew only that he was hungry, and through his restless sleep he dreamed of feasts and banquets and of food served and spread in all imaginable ways.


He awoke chilled and sick. There was no sun. The gray of earth and sky had become deeper, more profound. A raw wind was blowing, and the first flurries of snow were whitening the hilltops. The air about him thickened and grew white while he made a fire and boiled more water. It was wet snow, half rain, and the flakes were large and soggy. At first they melted as soon as they came in contact with the earth, but ever more fell, covering the ground, putting out the fire, spoiling his supply of moss-fuel.


This was a signal for him to strap on his pack and stumble onward, he knew not where. He was not concerned with the land of little sticks, nor with Bill and the cache under the upturned canoe by the river Dease. He was mastered by the verb "to eat." He was hunger- mad. He took no heed of the course he pursued, so long as that course led him through the swale bottoms. He felt his way through the wet snow to the watery muskeg berries, and went by feel as he pulled up the rush-grass by the roots. But it was tasteless stuff and did not satisfy. He found a weed that tasted sour and he ate all he could find of it, which was not much, for it was a creeping growth, easily hidden under the several inches of snow.


He had no fire that night, nor hot water, and crawled under his blanket to sleep the broken hunger-sleep. The snow turned into a cold rain. He awakened many times to feel it falling on his upturned face. Day came - a gray day and no sun. It had ceased raining. The keenness of his hunger had departed. Sensibility, as far as concerned the yearning for food, had been exhausted. There was a dull, heavy ache in his stomach, but it did not bother him so much. He was more rational, and once more he was chiefly interested in the land of little sticks and the cache by the river Dease.


He ripped the remnant of one of his blankets into strips and bound his bleeding feet. Also, he recinched the injured ankle and prepared himself for a day of travel. When he came to his pack, he paused long over the squat moose-hide sack, but in the end it went with him.


The snow had melted under the rain, and only the hilltops showed white. The sun came out, and he succeeded in locating the points of the compass, though he knew now that he was lost. Perhaps, in his previous days' wanderings, he had edged away too far to the left. He now bore off to the right to counteract the possible deviation from his true course.


Though the hunger pangs were no longer so exquisite, he realized that he was weak. He was compelled to pause for frequent rests, when he attacked the muskeg berries and rush-grass patches. His tongue felt dry and large, as though covered with a fine hairy growth, and it tasted bitter in his mouth. His heart gave him a great deal of trouble. When he had travelled a few minutes it would begin a remorseless thump, thump, thump, and then leap up and away in a painful flutter of beats that choked him and made him go faint and dizzy.


In the middle of the day he found two minnows in a large pool. It was impossible to bale it, but he was calmer now and managed to catch them in his tin bucket. They were no longer than his little finger, but he was not particularly hungry. The dull ache in his stomach had been growing duller and fainter. It seemed almost that his stomach was dozing. He ate the fish raw, masticating with painstaking care, for the eating was an act of pure reason. While he had no desire to eat, he knew that he must eat to live.


In the evening he caught three more minnows, eating two and saving the third for breakfast. The sun had dried stray shreds of moss, and he was able to warm himself with hot water. He had not covered more than ten miles that day; and the next day, travelling whenever his heart permitted him, he covered no more than five miles. But his stomach did not give him the slightest uneasiness. It had gone to sleep. He was in a strange country, too, and the caribou were growing more plentiful, also the wolves. Often their yelps drifted across the desolation, and once he saw three of them slinking away before his path.


Another night; and in the morning, being more rational, he untied the leather string that fastened the squat moose-hide sack. From its open mouth poured a yellow stream of coarse gold-dust and nuggets. He roughly divided the gold in halves, caching one half on a prominent ledge, wrapped in a piece of blanket, and returning the other half to the sack. He also began to use strips of the one remaining blanket for his feet. He still clung to his gun, for there were cartridges in that cache by the river Dease.

Love Of Life(2)

At six o'clock he awoke, quietly lying on his back. He gazed straight up into the gray sky and knew that he was hungry. As he rolled over on his elbow he was startled by a loud snort, and saw a bull caribou regarding him with alert curiosity. The animal was not mere than fifty feet away, and instantly into the man's mind leaped the vision and the savor of a caribou steak sizzling and frying over a fire. Mechanically he reached for the empty gun, drew a bead, and pulled the trigger. The bull snorted and leaped away, his hoofs rattling and clattering as he fled across the ledges.


The man cursed and flung the empty gun from him. He groaned aloud as he started to drag himself to his feet. It was a slow and arduous task.


His joints were like rusty hinges. They worked harshly in their sockets, with much friction, and each bending or unbending was accomplished only through a sheer exertion of will. When he finally gained his feet, another minute or so was consumed in straightening up, so that he could stand erect as a man should stand.


He crawled up a small knoll and surveyed the prospect. There were no trees, no bushes, nothing but a gray sea of moss scarcely diversified by gray rocks, gray lakelets, and gray streamlets. The sky was gray. There was no sun nor hint of sun. He had no idea of north, and he had forgotten the way he had come to this spot the night before. But he was not lost. He knew that. Soon he would come to the land of the little sticks. He felt that it lay off to the left somewhere, not far - possibly just over the next low hill.


He went back to put his pack into shape for travelling. He assured himself of the existence of his three separate parcels of matches, though he did not stop to count them. But he did linger, debating, over a squat moose-hide sack. It was not large. He could hide it under his two hands. He knew that it weighed fifteen pounds, - as much as all the rest of the pack, - and it worried him. He finally set it to one side and proceeded to roll the pack. He paused to gaze at the squat moose-hide sack. He picked it up hastily with a defiant glance about him, as though the desolation were trying to rob him of it; and when he rose to his feet to stagger on into the day, it was included in the pack on his back.


He bore away to the left, stopping now and again to eat muskeg berries. His ankle had stiffened, his limp was more pronounced, but the pain of it was as nothing compared with the pain of his stomach. The hunger pangs were sharp. They gnawed and gnawed until he could not keep his mind steady on the course he must pursue to gain the land of little sticks. The muskeg berries did not allay this gnawing, while they made his tongue and the roof of his mouth sore with their irritating bite.


He came upon a valley where rock ptarmigan rose on whirring wings from the ledges and muskegs. Ker - ker - ker was the cry they made. He threw stones at them, but could not hit them. He placed his pack on the ground and stalked them as a cat stalks a sparrow. The sharp rocks cut through his pants' legs till his knees left a trail of blood; but the hurt was lost in the hurt of his hunger. He squirmed over the wet moss, saturating his clothes and chilling his body; but he was not aware of it, so great was his fever for food. And always the ptarmigan rose, whirring, before him, till their ker - ker - ker became a mock to him, and he cursed them and cried aloud at them with their own cry.


Once he crawled upon one that must have been asleep. He did not see it till it shot up in his face from its rocky nook. He made a clutch as startled as was the rise of the ptarmigan, and there remained in his hand three tail-feathers. As he watched its flight he hated it, as though it had done him some terrible wrong. Then he returned and shouldered his pack.


As the day wore along he came into valleys or swales where game was more plentiful. A band of caribou passed by, twenty and odd animals, tantalizingly within rifle range. He felt a wild desire to run after them, a certitude that he could run them down. A black fox came toward him, carrying a ptarmigan in his mouth. The man shouted. It was a fearful cry, but the fox, leaping away in fright, did not drop the ptarmigan.


Late in the afternoon he followed a stream, milky with lime, which ran through sparse patches of rush-grass. Grasping these rushes firmly near the root, he pulled up what resembled a young onion- sprout no larger than a shingle-nail. It was tender, and his teeth sank into it with a crunch that promised deliciously of food. But its fibers were tough. It was composed of stringy filaments saturated with water, like the berries, and devoid of nourishment. He threw off his pack and went into the rush-grass on hands and knees, crunching and munching, like some bovine creature.

Love Of Life(1)

Love of Life

"This out of all will remain -
They have lived and have tossed:
So much of the game will be gain,
Though the gold of the dice has been lost."

THEY limped painfully down the bank, and once the foremost of the two men staggered among the rough-strewn rocks. They were tired and weak, and their faces had the drawn expression of patience which comes of hardship long endured. They were heavily burdened with blanket packs which were strapped to their shoulders. Head- straps, passing across the forehead, helped support these packs. Each man carried a rifle. They walked in a stooped posture, the shoulders well forward, the head still farther forward, the eyes bent upon the ground.


"I wish we had just about two of them cartridges that's layin' in that cache of ourn," said the second man.


His voice was utterly and drearily expressionless. He spoke without enthusiasm; and the first man, limping into the milky stream that foamed over the rocks, vouchsafed no reply.


The other man followed at his heels. They did not remove their foot-gear, though the water was icy cold - so cold that their ankles ached and their feet went numb. In places the water dashed against their knees, and both men staggered for footing.


The man who followed slipped on a smooth boulder, nearly fell, but recovered himself with a violent effort, at the same time uttering a sharp exclamation of pain. He seemed faint and dizzy and put out his free hand while he reeled, as though seeking support against the air. When he had steadied himself he stepped forward, but reeled again and nearly fell. Then he stood still and looked at the other man, who had never turned his head.


The man stood still for fully a minute, as though debating with himself. Then he called out:


"I say, Bill, I've sprained my ankle."


Bill staggered on through the milky water. He did not look around. The man watched him go, and though his face was expressionless as ever, his eyes were like the eyes of a wounded deer.


The other man limped up the farther bank and continued straight on without looking back. The man in the stream watched him. His lips trembled a little, so that the rough thatch of brown hair which covered them was visibly agitated. His tongue even strayed out to moisten them.


"Bill!" he cried out.


It was the pleading cry of a strong man in distress, but Bill's head did not turn. The man watched him go, limping grotesquely and lurching forward with stammering gait up the slow slope toward the soft sky-line of the low-lying hill. He watched him go till he passed over the crest and disappeared. Then he turned his gaze and slowly took in the circle of the world that remained to him now that Bill was gone.


Near the horizon the sun was smouldering dimly, almost obscured by formless mists and vapors, which gave an impression of mass and density without outline or tangibility. The man pulled out his watch, the while resting his weight on one leg. It was four o'clock, and as the season was near the last of July or first of August, - he did not know the precise date within a week or two, - he knew that the sun roughly marked the northwest. He looked to the south and knew that somewhere beyond those bleak hills lay the Great Bear Lake; also, he knew that in that direction the Arctic Circle cut its forbidding way across the Canadian Barrens. This stream in which he stood was a feeder to the Coppermine River, which in turn flowed north and emptied into Coronation Gulf and the Arctic Ocean. He had never been there, but he had seen it, once, on a Hudson Bay Company chart.


Again his gaze completed the circle of the world about him. It was not a heartening spectacle. Everywhere was soft sky-line. The hills were all low-lying. There were no trees, no shrubs, no grasses - naught but a tremendous and terrible desolation that sent fear swiftly dawning into his eyes.


"Bill!" he whispered, once and twice; "Bill!"


He cowered in the midst of the milky water, as though the vastness were pressing in upon him with overwhelming force, brutally crushing him with its complacent awfulness. He began to shake as with an ague-fit, till the gun fell from his hand with a splash. This served to rouse him. He fought with his fear and pulled himself together, groping in the water and recovering the weapon. He hitched his pack farther over on his left shoulder, so as to take a portion of its weight from off the injured ankle. Then he proceeded, slowly and carefully, wincing with pain, to the bank.


He did not stop. With a desperation that was madness, unmindful of the pain, he hurried up the slope to the crest of the hill over which his comrade had disappeared - more grotesque and comical by far than that limping, jerking comrade. But at the crest he saw a shallow valley, empty of life. He fought with his fear again, overcame it, hitched the pack still farther over on his left shoulder, and lurched on down the slope.


The bottom of the valley was soggy with water, which the thick moss held, spongelike, close to the surface. This water squirted out from under his feet at every step, and each time he lifted a foot the action culminated in a sucking sound as the wet moss reluctantly released its grip. He picked his way from muskeg to muskeg, and followed the other man's footsteps along and across the rocky ledges which thrust like islets through the sea of moss.


Though alone, he was not lost. Farther on he knew he would come to where dead spruce and fir, very small and weazened, bordered the shore of a little lake, the TITCHIN-NICHILIE, in the tongue of the country, the "land of little sticks." And into that lake flowed a small stream, the water of which was not milky. There was rush- grass on that stream - this he remembered well - but no timber, and he would follow it till its first trickle ceased at a divide. He would cross this divide to the first trickle of another stream, flowing to the west, which he would follow until it emptied into the river Dease, and here he would find a cache under an upturned canoe and piled over with many rocks. And in this cache would be ammunition for his empty gun, fish-hooks and lines, a small net - all the utilities for the killing and snaring of food. Also, he would find flour, - not much, - a piece of bacon, and some beans.


Bill would be waiting for him there, and they would paddle away south down the Dease to the Great Bear Lake. And south across the lake they would go, ever south, till they gained the Mackenzie. And south, still south, they would go, while the winter raced vainly after them, and the ice formed in the eddies, and the days grew chill and crisp, south to some warm Hudson Bay Company post, where timber grew tall and generous and there was grub without end.


These were the thoughts of the man as he strove onward. But hard as he strove with his body, he strove equally hard with his mind, trying to think that Bill had not deserted him, that Bill would surely wait for him at the cache. He was compelled to think this thought, or else there would not be any use to strive, and he would have lain down and died. And as the dim ball of the sun sank slowly into the northwest he covered every inch - and many times - of his and Bill's flight south before the downcoming winter. And he conned the grub of the cache and the grub of the Hudson Bay Company post over and over again. He had not eaten for two days; for a far longer time he had not had all he wanted to eat. Often he stooped and picked pale muskeg berries, put them into his mouth, and chewed and swallowed them. A muskeg berry is a bit of seed enclosed in a bit of water. In the mouth the water melts away and the seed chews sharp and bitter. The man knew there was no nourishment in the berries, but he chewed them patiently with a hope greater than knowledge and defying experience.


At nine o'clock he stubbed his toe on a rocky ledge, and from sheer weariness and weakness staggered and fell. He lay for some time, without movement, on his side. Then he slipped out of the pack- straps and clumsily dragged himself into a sitting posture. It was not yet dark, and in the lingering twilight he groped about among the rocks for shreds of dry moss. When he had gathered a heap he built a fire, - a smouldering, smudgy fire, - and put a tin pot of water on to boil.


He unwrapped his pack and the first thing he did was to count his matches. There were sixty-seven. He counted them three times to make sure. He divided them into several portions, wrapping them in oil paper, disposing of one bunch in his empty tobacco pouch, of another bunch in the inside band of his battered hat, of a third bunch under his shirt on the chest. This accomplished, a panic came upon him, and he unwrapped them all and counted them again. There were still sixty-seven.


He dried his wet foot-gear by the fire. The moccasins were in soggy shreds. The blanket socks were worn through in places, and his feet were raw and bleeding. His ankle was throbbing, and he gave it an examination. It had swollen to the size of his knee. He tore a long strip from one of his two blankets and bound the ankle tightly. He tore other strips and bound them about his feet to serve for both moccasins and socks. Then he drank the pot of water, steaming hot, wound his watch, and crawled between his blankets.


He slept like a dead man. The brief darkness around midnight came and went. The sun arose in the northeast - at least the day dawned in that quarter, for the sun was hidden by gray clouds.


 

Important Reading for Final Examination

          As we discussed before, we are going to study  an article, Love Of Life, for your comment or review in the final examination, which is written by Jack London.
          You may study it by yourselves using Internet, and then please do your comment or review previously.
           As to the techniques or methods of writing a literature comment or literature review, please visit the site: http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/Assignments.html and find the topic of "Reviews", then you can learn them.
           Generally speaking, to write a literature review, the following are basic steps:
1. Introduction
2. Components
3. Definition and Use/Purpose


1. Introduction
Not to be confused with a book review, a literature review surveys scholarly articles, books and other sources (e.g. dissertations, conference proceedings) relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory, providing a description, summary, and critical evaluation of each work. The purpose is to offer an overview of significant literature published on a topic.
2. Components
Similar to primary research, development of the literature review requires four stages:
Problem formulation—which topic or field is being examined and what are its component issues?
Literature search—finding materials relevant to the subject being explored
Data evaluation—determining which literature makes a significant contribution to the
understanding of the topic
Analysis and interpretation—discussing the findings and conclusions of pertinent literature
Literature reviews should comprise the following elements:
*An overview of the subject, issue or theory under consideration, along with the objectives of the literature review
*Division of works under review into categories (e.g. those in support of a particular
position, those against, and those offering alternative theses entirely)
*Explanation of how each work is similar to and how it varies from the others
*Conclusions as to which pieces are best considered in their argument, are most convincing of
their opinions, and make the greatest contribution to the understanding and development of their area of research

In assessing each piece, consideration should be given to:
Provenance—What are the author's credentials? Are the author's arguments supported by evidence (e.g. primary historical material, case studies, narratives, statistics, recent scientific findings)?
Objectivity—Is the author's perspective even-handed or prejudicial? Is contrary data
considered or is certain pertinent information ignored to prove the author's point?
Persuasiveness—Which of the author's theses are most/least convincing?
Value—Are the author's arguments and conclusions convincing? Does the work ultimately
contribute in any significant way to an understanding of the subject?

3. Definition and Use/Purpose
A literature review may constitute an essential chapter of a thesis or dissertation, or may be a self-contained review of writings on a subject. In either case, its purpose is to:


*Place each work in the context of its contribution to the understanding of the subject under review
*Describe the relationship of each work to the others under consideration
*Identify new ways to interpret, and shed light on any gaps in, previous research
*Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies
*Identify areas of prior scholarship to prevent duplication of effort
*Point the way forward for further research
*Place one's original work (in the case of theses or dissertations) in the context of
existing literature
*The literature review itself, however, does not present new primary scholarship.

Notice:
         The words of your comment should be more than 300 words and the comment has to follow the theories which we have learned this term. In my blog you may find the material of Love Of Life.

Backguound of Author:


Jack London (John Griffith) (1876-1916) (born Jan. 12, 1876, died Nov. 22, 1916), whose life symbolized the power of will, was the most successful writer in America in the early 20th Century. His vigorous stories of men and animals against the environment, and survival against hardships were drawn mainly from his own experience. An illegitimate child, London passed his childhood in poverty in the Oakland slums. At the age of 17, he ventured to sea on a sealing ship. The turning point of his life was a thirty-day imprisonment that was so degrading it made him decide to turn to education and pursue a career in writing. His years in the Klondike searching for gold left their mark in his best short stories; among them, The Call of the Wild, and White Fang. His best novel, The Sea-Wolf, was based on his experiences at sea. His work embraced the concepts of unconfined individualism and Darwinism in its exploration of the laws of nature. He retired to his ranch near Sonoma, where he died at age 40 of various diseases and drug treatments.
  Jack London is best known for his books The Call of the Wild, White Fang, and The Sea-Wolf, and a few short stories, such as "To Build a Fire" and "The White Silence." In fact, he was a prolific writer whose fiction explored three geographies and their cultures: the Yukon, California, and the South Pacific. He experimented with many literary forms, from conventional love stories and dystopias to science fantasy. His noted journalism included war correspondence, boxing stories, and the life of Molokai lepers. A committed socialist, he insisted against editorial pressures to write political essays and insert social criticism in his fiction. He was among the most influential figures of his day, who understood how to create a public persona and use the media to market his self-created image of poor-boy-turned-success. London's great passion was agriculture, and he was well on the way of creating a new model for ranching through his Beauty Ranch when he died of kidney disease at age 40. He left over fifty books of novels, stories, journalism, and essays, many of which have been translated and continue to be read around the world.


Jack London(杰克伦敦 1876~1916) 美国小说家,生于加利福尼亚旧金山一个破产农民家庭。他从幼年起就不得不出卖体力养活自己。他当过牧童、报童、童工、工人、水手。他还参加过1893年大恐慌中失业大军组成的抗东篱把酒黄昏后议队伍,以流浪罪被捕入狱,罚做苦工几个月。出狱后,他一边拼命干活,一边刻苦学习,广泛涉猎达尔文、斯宾塞、尼采和马克思等人的著作。他曾考进加利福尼亚大学,一年后辍学。后来受了阿拉斯加淘金热的影响,加入了淘金者的行列,却因病空手而归,但带回了北方故事的丰富素材。从此,他埋头写作,成为“出卖脑力劳动”的职业作家。 杰克·伦敦从1900年起连续发表了许多短篇小说,通称为“北方故事”,是他的成名之作。描写英国伦敦贫民窟和工人的悲惨生活《深渊中的人们》(1903)、自传体小说《马丁·伊登》(1909)、政治幻想小说《铁蹄》(1908)等许多中长篇小说和散文集,深刻地揭露资本主义社会的弊端和罪恶,有力地控诉资产阶半夜凉初透级对劳动人民的剥削,公开号召用阶半夜凉初透级斗争和武装革莫道不消魂命推翻资本主义制度。 杰克·伦敦在不长的十几年创作生涯中共写了19部长篇小说,150多篇中短篇小说和大量文学报告集、散文集和论文。其中比较优秀的还有《荒野的呼唤》(i903)、《白牙》(1906)、《天大亮》(1910)、《月谷》(1913)、《黑西哥人》(1913),和受到列宁赞赏的《热爱生命》(1906)。但是到了晚期,他逐渐脱离社会斗争,为了迎合出版商的需要和满足个人的物质享受也写了不少粗制滥造的作品。1916年杰克·伦敦和他的代表作中的主人公马丁·伊登一样,在精神极度空虚和悲观失望中自杀身亡。   
  
    


Assignment in Diction [原]

*Exercise 1


Replace the italicized words with simple, everyday words or expressions:


1. The pungent odour of sulfuretted  hydrogen resembles that of rotten eggs.  (   )
2. As you approach it, a tinkling and banging and clashing begins to impinge on your ear.(   )
3.I cannot recall when I have had such a sumptuous Thanksgiving feast. (   )
4. The cactus has adapted to survive in an arid environment.  (   )
5. When Edward VII abdicated the British throne to marry the woman he loved, he surprised the entire world.  (   )
6. Although we were encompassed by enemy forces, we were cheerful for we were well stocked and could withstand a siege until our allies joined us.  (    )
7. The police noticed some discrepancies in his description of the crime and did not believe him.  (    )
8. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake was a catastrophe that destroyed most of the city.  (   )
9. Deep in her book, Nancy was oblivious to the noisy squabbles of her brother and his friends.  (    )
10. Times of economic hardship inevitably encourage the proliferation of countless get-rich-quick schemes. (    )
11. Freddy was so overwhelmed by the profusion of choices on the menu that he knocked over his wine glass and soaked his host.  (     )
12. For many years an unheralded research, Barbara McClintock gained international renown when she won the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine.  (    )
13. Because we were running out of time, the lecturer had to abbreviate her speech. (   )
14. On the castle battlements, an apparition materialized and spoke to Hamlet, warning him of his uncle’s treachery.  (    )
15. Mark refused to concede that she was right.  (     )


*Exercise 2


Simplify the structure:
1. We will file the appropriate papers in the event that we are unable to meet the deadline.
2. Due to the fact that the guest of honor is ill, the party is being postponed until next Saturday.
3. Rarely should the doctor give a patient an estimate of how many months or years he or she will live.
4. The administrative secretary is responsible for monitoring and balancing the budgets for travel and contract services.
5. There is another module that tells the story of Charles Darwin and introduces the theory of evolution.
6. Thermography , which is a new method of breast cancer detection, records heat patterns on black and white or color-coded film.
7. The town of New Harmony, located in Indiana, was founded as a Utopian community.
8. Susan’s stylish jeans , made of leather, were too warm for our climate.
9. When visitors come to visit her, she just stares at the wall.
10. In Biology 10A you will be assigned a faculty tutor who will be available to assign you eight taped modules and help you clarify any information on the tapes.

The Right Usage of Words [原]

Anyone who wishes to become a good writer should endeavor, before he allows himself to be tempted by the more showy  qualities, to be direct, simple, brief, vigorous and lucid .
The great H. W. Fowler got it right almost 100 years ago:
• Prefer the familiar word to the far-fetched.
• Prefer the concrete word to the abstract.
• Prefer the single word to the circumlocution.
• Prefer the short word to the long.
• Prefer the Saxon word to the Romance.
This general principle may be translated into practical rules in die domain of vocabulary as follows:


1. Prefer the Familiar Word to the Far-fetched, for the familiar are more likely to be readily understood.
• Reform converses with possibilities, perchance with impossibilities; but here is a sacred fact. — Emerson, (perhaps)
• The din of the stall-holders crying their wares, of donkey-boys and porters clearing a way for themselves by shouting vigorously, and the would-be purchasers arguing and bargaining is continuous and makes you dizzy. — Advanced English (buyers)
• Witchcraft  has been put a stop to by Act of Parliament; but the mysterious relations which it emblemed still continue. — Carlyle. (symbolized)
• It will only have itself to thank if future disaster rewards its nescience of the conditions of successful warfare. — Outlook,  (ignorance)
• Continual vigilance is imperative on the public to ensure... — Times. (We must be ever on the watch)
• "I have no particular business at L- - - , "said he, "I was merely going thither to pass a day or two."— Borrow. (there)
• The shop-keepers speak in slow, measured tones, and the buyers, overwhelmed by the sepulchral atmosphere. . . — Advanced English,  (atmosphere of death)


2. Prefer the Concrete Word to the Abstract
Use words with a precise meaning rather than those that are vague, for they will obviously serve better to make your meaning clear and they are more likely to have a precise meaning. The reason for preferring the concrete to the abstract is clear. Your purpose must be to make your meaning plain. Now, if, as we have seen, even such concrete words as ship, gold and money have a penumbra  of uncertainty round them, an incomparably larger one surrounds all abstract words. If you use an abstract word when you might use a concrete one you are handicapping yourself in your task, difficult enough in any case, of making yourself understood.

1)Unless these wagons can be moved the position will soon be reached where there will be no more wagons to be filled. ( Unless these wagons can be moved there will soon be no more wagons to be filled. . . )
2)The general poverty of explanation as to the diction of particular phrases seemed to point in the same direction. — Cambridge University Reporter. (It was perhaps owing to this also that the diction of particular phrases was often so badly explained)
3)An elementary condition of a sound discussion is a frank recognition of the gulf severing two sets of facts. — Times. (There can be no sound discussion where the gulf severing two sets of facts is not frankly recognized)
4)The signs of the times point to the necessity of the modification of the system of ad¬ministration. — Times. (It is becoming clear that the administrative system must be modified)
5)No year passes now without evidence of the truth of the statement that the work of government is becoming increasingly difficult. — Spectator. (Every year shows again how true it is that. . . )
6)The first private conference relating to the question of the convocation of representa¬tives of the nation took place yesterday. — Times (on national representation)
7)There seems to have been an absence of attempt at conciliation between rival sects. — Daily Telegraph. (The sects seem never even to have tried mutual conciliation)


3. Prefer the Single Word to the Circumlocution.
Use no more words than are necessary to express your meaning. For if you use more you are likely to obscure it and to tire your reader. In particular do not use superfluous  adjectives and adverbs and do not use roundabout phrases where single words would serve, e. g.

Inaccuracies were in many cases due to cramped methods of writing. — Cambridge University Reporter. (often)
Few candidates showed a thorough knowledge of the text of I Kings, and in many cases the answers lacked care. — Ibid, (many answers)
The matter will remain in abeyance until the Bishop has had time to become more fully acquainted with the diocese, and to ascertain which part of the city will be most desirable for residential purposes . — Times.  (his residence)
M. Witte is taking active measures for the prompt preparation of material for the study of the question of the execution of the Imperial Ukase dealing with reforms. — Times. (actively collecting all information that may be needed before the Tsar' s reform Ukase can be executed)
The Russian Government is at last face to face with the greatest crisis of the war, in the shape of the fact that the Siberian railway is no longer capable... — Spectator. (for) or ( : )
Mr. J - - O - - has been made the recipient of a silver medal. — Guernsey Advertiser.  (received)
His industry, perseverance and determination ultimately brought him a rich harvest. (a great success)

4.Prefer the Short Word to the Long.


Short words are as good as long ones, and short, old words — like sun and grass and home — are the best of all. More small words than you might think can meet your needs with a strength , grace and charm that large words don' t have . Big words can bog down : One may have to read them three or four times to make out what they mean . Small words are the ones we seem to have known from the time we were born, like the hearth fire that warms the home . Short words are bright like sparks that glow in the night, moist like the sea that laps the shore, sharp like the blade of a knife, hot like salt tears that scald the cheek , quick like moths that flit from flame to flame, and terse like the dart and sting of a bee."
— Richard Lederer

On the left side are some phrases that use three, four, five, even six words where fewer (on the right) will do:
I came to the realization that — I realized that
She is of the opinion that — She thinks that
The quotation is supportive of — The quotation supports
Concerning the matter — About
During the course of — During
For the period of a week — For a week
In the event that — If
In the process of — During, while
Regardless of the fact that — Although
Due to the fact that — Because
The fact that — That
Inasmuch as — Since
If the case was such that — If
It is often the case that — Often
In all cases — Always
I made contact with — I called, saw, phoned, wrote, emailed
At that point in time — Then
At this point in time — Now
Prior to — Before
Some other examples to show the power of short words:


One of the most important reforms mentioned in the rescript  is the unification of the organization of the judicial institutions and the guarantee for all the tribunals of the independence necessary for securing to all classes of the community equality before the law . — Times. (is that of the Courts, which need a uniform system, and the independence! without which it is impossible for all men to be equal before the law)
I merely desired to point out the principal reason which I believe exists for the great exaggeration which is occasionally to be observed in the estimate of the importance of the contradiction between current Religion and current Science put forward by thinkers of reputation. — Balfour, (why, in my opinion, some well-known thinkers make out the contradiction between current Religion and current Science to be so much more important than it is)
— Sir, will you permit me to homologate all you say today regarding that selfish minority of motorists who. . . — Times,  (agree with)
On the Berlin Bourse today die prospect of a general strike was cheerfully envisaged. — Times, (faced)
The very act of stepping on this soil, in breathing this air of Hiroshima, was for me a far greater adventure than any trip or any reportorial assignment I’d previously taken. — Advanced English, (task)
I see that small group of villainous man, who plan, organize — Advanced English. (evil)


5. Prefer the Saxon Word to the Romance.
Believe it or not, more Saxon (Germanic) words are familiar to English-speaking people than those based on words from Romance languages like French and Italian. The English language has developed from an Anglo-Saxon base of common words:
1) Household words: bower, yard, stool, floor
2) Parts of the body: hand, foot, arm, eye, ear, chin, heart, bone
3) Common animals: horse, mare, sheep, lamb, deer, swine, hen, dog, bear
4) natural elements: land, mead, meadow, field, ford, earth, wood, hedge, hill, sun, moon, day, month, year
5) Other words: black, long, fresh, swift, glad, many, young (adj.); drive, abide, choose, climb, step, burst, know, sleep, weave, think, deal, wound, buy, gather ( verbs ) , etc.


The vocabulary of English is the largest of any language. Even with many borrowings the heart of the language remains the Anglo-Saxon of Old English. Only about 5,000 or so words from this period have remained unchanged but they include the basic building blocks of the language: they are the back stone of the English language. Grafted onto this basic stock was a wealth of contributions to produce, what many people believe, is the richest of the world s languages.

Shakespeare once said "Brevity is the soul of wit". In foreign language writing, students should learn to choose words carefully, and beware of the thesaurus, check the dictionary . And skip pretentious words; there’s nothing wrong with big words, but you’ll get your point across in a straightforward manner if you use direct, precise language.



In addition to using appropriate words to convey your ideas, you will want to think about the voice and style in which you present your ideas.  Think about your reader and the most convincing approach to that reader as you put your ideas into writing. Present those ideas as persuasively as possible.

Abstract & Summary [原]

•Abstract


Abstract are very common in academic writing, and they have a fairly standard form. In essence, abstracts inform the reader of six bits of information about the piece of writing being summarized:
(摘要常用于学术研究写作中,如:研究论文、科研报告。位于标题之后引语之前,在文章的最前端,但它的写作往往在全部文章完成之后,因为它是文章的实质内容。它主要包括要探讨的问题、研究目的和方法以及研究得到的结果和结论。因而它既要准确还要简洁。
写作方法:
1.摘要一般只有一段或两段,不超过250字。内容简洁、结构紧凑、陈述准
确。多用被动语态。•
2.首先提出要探讨的问题以及进行科学研究的理由。
3.下一步对于要回答和解决的问题开展了哪些研究工作。陈述时不用细
节,只列出提纲,但要重点突出。
4.然后提出经过深入研究、分析和实验所获得的重要结果。陈述要简明扼
要,最多两到三句话。研究结果通常是对开始所提问题的回答或解答。
5.最后是结论,它随着研究结果而定。这个结论既是简单总结,同时也阐
述了研究结果的深远意义。
)


1. purpose
• What is the author's reason for writing?
• What is the author's main idea?
2. scope
• What is the author's focus in this piece?
• Where does the author concentrate his/her attention?
3. method
• What kinds of evidence does the author provide?
• How does the author try to convince the reader of the validity of his/her main idea?
4. results
• What are the consequences of the problem or issue that the author is discussing?
5. recommendations
• What solutions does the author present to the reader to resolve the problem of issue in the piece?
• Does the author recommend action or change in his/her piece?
6. conclusions
• Does the author describe a ' cause and effect' relationship or explain the origins of this issue or problem?
• What conclusions does the author draw from his/her study of the issue or problem?
Abstracts are not long — only about a paragraph. (If each point above, for example, got its own sentence, men the abstract would be six sentences long. Many writers find mat they can combine several of the sentences of the abstract when the ideas are closely related.) At the beginning of an essay, abstracts allow you to introduce your subject to your readers before you go into your analysis in detail.
The abstract, although it comes first logistically, always should be written last. It needs to be written last because it is the essence of your report, drawing information from all of the other sections of the report. It explains why the experiment was performed and what conclusions were drawn from the results obtained. A general guideline for an abstract has five sections or areas of focus: why the experiment was conducted; the problem being addressed; what methods were used to solve the problem; the major results obtained; and the overall conclusions from the experiment as a whole. Do not be misled, however, from this list into thinking that the abstract is a long section. In fact, it should be significantly shorter than all of the others. All of this information should be summarized in a clear but succinct manner if the abstract is going to be successful. An estimated average length for all of this information is only a single paragraph. Although this may seem as though it is a short length to contain all of the required information, it is necessary because it forces you to be accurate and yet compact, two essential qualities.
Here are two examples of the same abstract, sample one is an example of a badly written abstract, while sample two is an example of a well-written abstract. Italicized words are links to explanations describing why the sentences are a good or bad example of an abstract.
• Summary
A summary is a shortened or condensed version, in your own words, of something you have read. Not only an important writing skill, summary writing is also a valuable learning tool. The most common kind of summary writing in college requires you to read the work of someone else, to be able to pick out the most essential idea, and to put these ideas into your own words. The summary, therefore, becomes a tool for understanding what you read; it forces you to read critically, differentiating between main ideas and minor points. Summary writing also forces you to write clearly because you cannot waste any words.
The first aim of the summary is brevity: your job as a summary writer is to convey in as few words as possible the information contained in the piece of writing. Because the summary is concerned with stating the ideas of someone else, the second aim of the summary is objectivity. This is not the place to respond to a writer s ideas but to demonstrate your understanding of them. The third aim of the summary, completeness is the most crucial. Both objectivity and brevity will follow from your ability to isolate and concentrate on the main idea contained in the selection you are summarizing.


Method for Writing a One-Paragraph Summary
1. Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions:
(1) What is the topic of the passage?
(2) What is the author's purpose in writing? Does the author describe something, analyze a problem, give information, review a book or movie, try to persuade the reader to adopt his point of view or take some action, state a personal opinion or grievance, give instructions for completing a task, or compare different products
or viewpoints?
2. What point is the author trying to make? Which are major ideas used to develop this point and which are minor supporting ideas and examples? Underline the major ideas.
3. Now reread. Go back and break up the piece of writing into sections or stages of thought, labeling each section. The author's use of paragraphing may be helpful in identifying the different stages of thought.
4. On a separate sheet of paper, write a one-sentence restatement in your own words of the main idea of the passage. Include in this sentence the title and author of the piece you are summarizing.
5. Next, give a one-sentence summary of each of the stages of thought you identified and combine these sentences with the one-sentence restatement of the main idea.
6. Read over what you have written to make sure you have eliminated less important information and left out minor details. Use as few words as possible to convey the major ideas.
7. Read over your summary and revise it. First, be sure you have followed the organizational pattern of the original. Next, insert transitions where necessary and combine sentences so as to eliminate choppiness and repetition. If you have taken a key word or phrase directly from the text, be sure to enclose it in quotation marks (" "). Finally, check for correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation.
8. As a final test, ask yourself if someone who had not read the piece would get a clear and correct idea of its contents by reading your summary.
(英文概要
概要是用自己的语言把所读的文章经过浓缩而写的短文。它不仅是一种重要的写作技巧,也是一种实用的学习工具。首先概要的表达言简意赅、条理清楚。其次内容要忠实于原文。陈述客观、完整。通过一篇成功的概要,可以准确了解原文的主要内容。
写作方法:
1.仔细阅读并理解文章的全部内容和作者的写作目的。找出中心思想以及与之有密切关系的论述、事实和例证。
2.写概要可以说是文字上的再创作。写作时要学会压缩文字,只取要点,解释要点的细节一律删去。长度一般不超过原文的三分之一。
3.按原文顺序写,可利用文章段落,理解、组织概要内容。不可改动原文思想。
4.写概要时,要尽量使用概括性词语,少用具体细节描述。

Book Report [原]

Book reports are a way to show how well you understood a book and to tell what you think about it. A book report is completely factual. It includes information on the author, title, place and year of publication as well as a summary of the content of the book.(读书报告可表明你对一本书理解的程度及对其的看法。读书报告要完全以书中的实际情况为依据。一篇读书报告应包括以下内容:故事梗概、作者生平、作品题目、地点及出版年月。)


The steps to follow for your book report are:
•   Choosing Your Book
•   Reading the Book
•   The Outline of Your Report
•   The Draft and the Final Report
(写读书报告的步骤如下:选书、读书、报告提纲、打草稿并完成读书报告。)
1.  Choosing Your Book
Perhaps your teacher has assigned a specific book for you to read. If this is the case you can skip this section and move on to READING THE BOOK. If you are able to pick the book of your choice you must first decide whether you want to read fiction or non-fiction. Do you love reading history books, or do you prefer novel reading? This is an important question to ask yourself. If you do a book report on a book which you dislike, several problems arise. Firstly, you are not going to enjoy writing a report on such a book. Secondly, your report is going to be almost entirely negative. Is this an accurate reflection of the book? The reader of your report will probably be turned off by your attitude. There is nothing wrong with selective criticism, but a book report which criticizes the author and his work at every turn is self defeating. So, choose your book carefully. The result will be more pleasurable, both for yourself and for whoever reads your report.
(选书如果老师指定书目,你可以直接进入读书这个环节。如果可以自选书目,首先必须决定读小说类的书还是非小说类的书。如果给一本不喜欢的书写读书报告,会出现许多问题。首先,你不会喜欢给这本书写读书报告。其次,报告会写得很消极。你的态度会影响看你的读书报告的读者。因此,要认真选书。)
2.  Reading the Book
In the hustle and bustle of modern everyday life the simple pleasure of reading a good book is often forgotten. There is nothing easier yet more satisfying than sitting down in a favorite place to read. Find somewhere quiet and private where you are unlikely to be disturbed. Try to pick the place where you can be transported into the world of the book with a minimum of distraction. It is fine to read your book in a single sitting, or you can read it over a number of days. Know your limitations here. Do not make yourself read a set number of pages or chapters every day. This can make your reading a chore. Read as much as you are comfortable with and then put the book down until you are ready to start again. Mark where you stopped with a bookmark or a slip of paper. Try not to let a long time elapse between readings. A day or two, at most, is probably about right.
If you have a cheap personal copy of the book you are reading you might want to mark parts of the text which interest you. Do this in pencil. A word of warning here! Marking books is not a good habit to get into. During the course of your educational career you will meet many professional book lovers who will take a dim view of your marking books which are not your own. Talk to any college librarian if you want to hear a long history of irretrievably damaged books! A better idea than marking your book is to keep a notebook beside you so that you can write brief notes and page numbers you might want to come back to. You could do this during a second reading. This way you can read your book right through uninterrupted.
How many times should you read the book? This is a personal choice. Obviously you have to read it cover to cover at least once. Twice is recommended. If you really love the book you may find yourself reading it a third or even a fourth time. Many people have a favorite book which they read over and over again the way that you might watch a favorite movie. If you are lucky enough to find such a book the actual writing of your report will be more of a pleasure than a burden.
(读书在繁忙的日常生活中,人们忽略了读书的乐趣。然而,没有什么比找个舒适的地方看书更容易、更愉悦的了。选寻个舒适安静、不受干扰的地方读书。一口气读完或分几次读完,但不要间隔太长。可以在属于自己的书上用铅笔做笔记,但这并不是好习惯。最好是准备一个笔记本,随时做些笔记,把可能还会再看的页码记下来。写报告前应把书读几遍取决于个人。当然,至少要读一遍,建议读两遍。如果非常喜欢这本书,你可能还会读第三遍,甚至第四遍。如果你有幸找到这样一本书,那读书报告写起来将是件很有乐趣的事而不是负担。)
3. The Outline of Your Report
You have read your book. Your next step will be to organize what you are going to say about it in your report. Writing the basic elements down in an outline format will help you to organize your thoughts. What will you include in the outline? Follow whatever instructions your teacher has given you. If you are on your own, however, the following guidelines should help.
Let’s assume for the moment that you've chosen a work of fiction. We'll start with a description of the book. The description should include such elements as:
1)   The setting — where does the story take place? Is it a real place or an imaginary one? If the author does not tell you exactly where the story is set, what can you tell about it from the way it is described?
2)   The time period — is the story set in the present day or in an earlier time period? Perhaps it is even set in the future! Let your reader know.
The main characters) — who is the story mostly about? Give a brief description. Often, one character can be singled out as the main character, but some books will have more than one.
4) The plot — what happens to the main character? WARNING! Be careful here. Do not fall into the boring trap of reporting every single thing that happens in the story. Pick only the most important events. Here are some hints on how to do that. First, explain the situation of the main character as the story opens. Next, identify the basic plot element of the story — is the main character trying to achieve something or overcome a particular problem? Thirdly, describe a few of the more important things that happen to the main character as he/she works toward that goal or solution. Finally, you might hint at the story’s conclusion without completely giving away the ending.
The four points above deal with the report aspect of your work. For the final section of your outline, give your reader a sense of the impression the book made upon you. Ask yourself what the author was trying to achieve and whether or not he achieved it with you. What larger idea does the story illustrate? How does it do that? How did you feel about the author s style of writing, the setting, or the mood of the novel? You do not have to limit yourself to these areas. Pick something which caught your attention, and let your reader know your personal response to whatever it was.
4. The Draft and the Final Report
1)    The Draft
Your draft will be a fleshing out of the ideas from your outline. Don’t worry about being too neat as no one else will be reading this part of your work. You can write additional notes in the margins but try to make sure that, when you come back to write your final report, you can understand the exact order of your material.
2)    The Final Report
If you have followed the advice on these pages you should be ready to write your final report. Thoroughly familiarize yourself with your draft before you put pen to paper or fingers to keyboard. All of your revisions should have been made on your draft so your job now is to make sure that your presentation is correct. Check your grammar and your spelling. Try to use a word processor if possible. Typed reports look better than handwritten ones. They are easier for your teacher to read and they are easier for you to correct.
(撰写初稿并完成报告
1)撰写初稿
提纲写好后,就可以开始写报告了。撰写初稿是很有必要的。写初稿时,不必太在意文章的整洁度,可以在页边加注或进行修改润色。
2)完成报告
完成以上的步骤之后,就可以出成稿子。认真地修改初稿,然后开始誊写或打印。最后还要细心检查语法错误和拼写错误,如可能,最好使用文字处理器。打印的文章比手写的好看,而且老师改起来也容易。


 


 



 

结 尾 六 法 [原]

同样,文章结尾,能给人也很重要,好结尾会使读者对全文中心思想留下深刻印象,可以增添文章效果和说服力,让人深思,回味无穷。确切地说,结尾作用就是概括全文内容,进一步强调或肯定文章中心思想,使读者加深印象;有时也用于展望未来,提出今后方向或令人深思问题给读者留下回味和思考余地。—篇文章总要收笔,它该有个什么样的结尾(conclusion)呢?这对许多写作的人来说也是一个不大不小的问题。有些人在没有动手写文章之前就有了结尾的佳句,简直是神来之笔,似乎得来全不费工夫;有的人绞尽脑汁,苦苦思索,也不知该如何收场是好。文章写到结尾处,好比一场精彩的演出已接近尾声,帷幕就要降落,就看这最后一个场景的戏了,演砸了,就会造成前功尽弃、虎半夜凉初透头蛇尾的感觉,让人遗憾。文章的结尾就是要在满腹经纶的高论之后,给读者以完整和圆满的感觉,不要留下什么缺憾。结尾的方式多种多样,没有一定或绝对的格式,任凭写作者根据具体的修辞环境、自己的风格或偏爱来设计和创造。
常用的方法有复述要旨、回应文章开首、引语、提出建议/预测未来、幽默调侃等。
1)复述要旨 (Restating the Thesis)
这也许是用得最多的文章结束法:总结和复述整个文章所阐述或讨论过的要点,常用的标志性表达方式是“总而言之”、“一言以蔽之”等。不过,如果文章不算长,就不一定要用那些带有宣告性的信号,不必过于正式地结束。只要文章把问题讨论得透彻,及至最后一段,没有那些信号,敏锐的读者仍然知道宴席就要散了。


      A sense of humor is really one of the keys to happiness. It gives best to life to make it on living.


      In all these benefits, it is no order that sports and games have not become more popular in people than ever.


      Generally speaking,…


      All in all, …


      In conclusion, a good teacher-student relationship can be mutual beneficial. The students gain knowledge eagerly and enjoyably, and the teacher gains satisfaction from his job.


      On the whole, there are more advantages than disadvantages in the use of TV. Yet different people may have different attitude toward TV. But we must realize that television in itself is neither good nor bad. Its value to people and society depends on how look at it.

2)回应开首 (Echoing the Introduction)
用一种含蓄、间接的方式回应(而不是复述)文章开首,包括文章开首所陈述的全文的主旨,能给人以圆满完结的感觉,干净利落,效果很好。


       3)引言 (An Apt Quotation)
既然可以用名言、格言和名人的话等做文章的开首,当然也可以用来做文章的结尾。但是,如同以名言、格言和名人的话为文章的开首,以此为文章的结束也忌讳过俗,没有任何新异或新鲜感。


      If you have anything to do, try to do it yourself, for that is the safest ay to permanent success. Remember the famous saying. "God helps those ho help themselves."


      If we stick to studies day after day, there is nothing that can't be achieved. As an old saying goes: "Constant dropping of water wears through a stone."



4)提出建议/预测未来 (Making Suggestions or Predictions)
当然,谁也无法真正预测未来,但是,对于大趋势做原则性的预测也是无可厚非的,就像气象台预报未来几日内的天气变化或一个经济学家预测未来经济走势一样。至于在讨论、分析某一个问题之后,提出某些建议(如解决问题的方法、该如何进一步研究、目前发展趋势有可能产生什么结果等)虽不是全文的主旨,也会给读者留下进一步思考的余地。


      I am sure that Chinese will become one of the most important languages in the world in the next century. As China will open further to the outside world, the language is sure to be spread world widely.


      If everyone has developed good manners, people will form a more harmonious relation. If everyone behaves considerately towards others and social ethics, people will live in a better world. In the general mood of society improved, there will be a progress of civilization.



5)幽默调侃 (Humorous Story, Comment or Twist)
还可以在临近结尾时,笔锋一转,以幽默的故事或评论等给文章划上一个不同寻常的句号。幽默调侃的结尾,给读者以意想不到的享受,好像一顿丰盛的正餐就要结束时最后的一道甜点,既给人以圆满的感觉,又留有回味的余地。当然,不能为了幽默而幽默,为了调侃而调侃,这最后一笔必须与整体的内容和风格相一致,不然,效果无异于在客人尽兴享用地道的淮阳菜后又端上冰激凌那样的西方甜点,岂不是不伦不类、让人薄雾浓云愁永昼大倒胃口吗?


6) 用反问结尾: 虽然形式是问句,但意义却是肯定,具有明显强调作用,引起读者思考。


      Therefore, listening skills must be consciously improved. Since it is such an important means of learning and communication, why should we not develop this ability as far as possible?


      SoWhat can be benefit from health if we do not have health?




以上介绍了几种写结尾段最常用方法,但到底选择何种方法结尾还得根据文体来决定。平铺直叙记叙文,往往在故事或事实情节讲完时文章也就自然结束了,而说理性和逻辑性较强说明文和议论文都应有一个正式结尾。










论辩文 [原]

论辩文的五个基本成分


从结构上来说,论辩文一般应包含5个基本成分:


       引言、说明、证明、反驳、结尾



a. 引言。引言处于文章篇首的位置,基本作用有三:

引出或介绍所要讨论和争辩的题目;
引起读者的兴趣
树立作者的正面(可信)的形象


■ 引出或介绍所要讨论和争辩的题目。及早点出要论辩的题目十分重要,免得读者读了半天,几个段落、几张纸翻了过去后,还在五里云雾之中,不知作者究竟要争辩什么。有时适当卖点关子、留些悬念也无所不可,只要切题就行,但不可过分。
■ 引起读者的兴趣如果读者看了文章的开首,打起哈欠,提不起精神来,后面的戏再好看也白搭。所以,文章开首最好能产生先声夺人的效果。把读者的兴趣吊起来。所谓文章的悬念,就是让读者非得跟作者一齐读下去不可。
■ 树立作者的正面(可信)的形象。当然,文章之首,也为读者如何看待作者——也就是作者的形象,定下基调。只有读者对作者充满信赖,才有可能下决心一口气读下去。


如何构思文章的开篇以产生上述3个效果呢?文章(包括论辩文)的开首,有各种不同方式,可以尽兴发挥自己的想像力和创造力。常用的方法有叙事(本人经历、掌故、假设情景等)、描述、发问等。


b. 说明
根据具体的修辞环境(题目、读者和目的),有时需要在开始论辩之前提供必要的背景资料、解释关键术语和观念等,为论辩准备必要的环境铺平道路。


c. 证明


这是论辩文的核心部分,它的主要任务就是通过展示详尽的事实证据和深入的分析,向读者实施理性和情感诉诸,让他们看到和理解你为什么认为自己的观点和立场是正确的。


d. 反驳


如果人人都是所见略同的英雄,也就没有争论和写论辩文章的必要了,而要说服持不同或相反观点的读者,除了要详尽摆出自己的事实和理由外,还得认真考虑、分析和反驳对方的观点或立场。如果发现对方的论点有合理的成分就应予肯定或采纳,然后再去反驳其中不合理或荒谬的部分。这种公正、开明和大度的态度不仅无损于你和你的争辩,而且有利于你塑造和传递正面的形象,最终达到写论辩文章的目的。从结构上来说,反驳部分可以放在证明部分之前或之后,具体情况要根据文章的修辞环境(题目、读者和目的)等而定。在许多情况下,将反驳部分放在证明部分之前效果更好,因为,在详尽陈述和证明自己的观点和立场之后再讨论对方的观点,有两种不利的后果:1)反驳对方时不得不重复很多在证明部分已经详尽阐述过了的事实和分析等,这种重复在结构上是浪费和拖沓;2)如果为了避免不必要的重复,就只提及或介绍对方的观点而不加以反驳,那么,因为文章已近尾声,留在读者脑海里印象最强烈的很有可能是对方的论点,而不是作者的。所以,可以把论辩文的结构顺序调整一下:


引言、说明、反驳、证明、结尾


 


d. 结尾。


一篇优秀文章就像一场优美的芭蕾舞。从序幕到终场前,优美的舞姿始终征服着观众。此时作者已经感到有些疲惫了,但还得坚持下去,尽力使演出有一个圆满的结局,避免失误,甚至绊倒在舞台上,造成前功尽弃、在大煞风景中落下帷幕。究竟该怎么样结束文章?当然得看具体的修辞环境。不过,有几个常用的方法可以参照:总结归纳全文的主要论点(切忌一字不漏地照搬原文)提出进一步研究的必要或方向讲一个切题的幽默故事等。


需要强调的是,上面提到的论辩文的5个组成部分及其顺序并不是一成不变的模式,更不等于说一篇论辩文必须或只有5个段落,以此模式来炮制变了形、变了味的“五股文”。实际上,论辩文有时可能只有4个,甚至3个成分(譬如,引言与说明部分合而为一、说明与反驳实际是一个部分),有时以陈述对方的观点开始,文章的主体就是逐一反驳对方的观点。应该把上述5个基本成分的结构看成一个有助于作者构造论辩文的一个启发思考、帮助构思的工具,而不是一个僵硬的数学公式。一个没有深刻和独到见解、论证不详实、分析不缜密严谨的文章,即使5个成分都齐全了,也还是一具没血没肉的僵尸,这种文章最好不要写。


Description and the Descriptive Essay-5 [原]

4. Cause/Effect: A cause/effect essay may explain .


The cause/effect essay explains why or how some event happened, and what resulted from the event. This essay is a study of the relationship between two or more events or experiences . The essay could discuss both causes and effects, or it could simply address one or the other. A cause essay usually discusses the reasons why something happened. An effect essay discusses what happens after a specific event or circumstance.


The below example shows a cause essay, one that would explain how and why an event happened.



5. Definition:


Examples: A definition essay may try and define. . .


  the meaning of an abstract concept , like love;


  the true meaning and importance of honesty;


• how the meaning of family goes deeper than just your blood relatives.


 


A definition essay attempts to define a specific term. It could try to pin down[1] the meaning of a specific word, or define an abstract concept. The analysis goes deeper than a simple dictionary definition; it should attempt to explain why the term is defined as such. It could define theterm directly, giving no information other than the explanation of the term. Or, it could imply the definition of the term, telling a story that requires the reader to infer the meaning.






[1] 使受约束, 阻止, 压制


Model  What Is Language?


A language is a signaling system which operates with symbolic vocal sounds, and which is used by a group of people for the purposes of communication. Let us look at this definition in more detail because it is language, more than anything else, which distinguishes man from the rest of the animal world.


Other animals, it is true, communicate with one another by beans of cries. For example, many birds utter warning calls at the approach of danger; apes utter different cries, such as expressions of anger, fear and pleasure. But these various means of communication differ in important ways from human language. For instance, animals’ cries are not articulate. This means, basically, that they lack structure. They lack, for example, the kind of structure given by the contrast between vowels and consonants. They also lack the kind of structure that enables us to divide a human utterance into words.


We can change an utterance by replacing one word in it by another: a good illustration of this is a soldier who can say, “tanks approaching from the north," or he can change two words and say "aircraft approaching from the west"; but a bird has a single alarm cry, which means    danger!


This is why the number of signals that an animal can make is very limited. The great Tit is a case in point. It has about twenty different calls, whereas in human language the number of possible utterances is infinite. It also explains why animal cries are very general in meaning.





Argumentation and the Persuasive Essay
Argumentative texts deal with problems and controversial ideas. It is, in reality, exposition with the additional purpose of convincing or persuading. In exposition, the writer tries to explain to make the reader learn or understand some message. To clarify his points, he may provide reasons, facts, statistics and examples. Reasons for or against some topic are put forward. The ultimate aim is always to win the reader/audience round to the author s side. There is a dominantly dialectical text structure, and words like but, by contrast, however, yet, still, in any case, so , etc. are linguistic signals of a contrastive text structure. But the basis of any argumentative text form has to be provided by expository passages, by the explanation of facts, concepts, developments or processes. In argumentation, the writer will arrange and shape the evidence to convince the reader of some conclusion, to persuade the reader to agree to his point of view and support it, and to spur the reader to some action. Convincing readers and motivating them to act seem to be more difficult than informing them about a subject. Whether the writer can persuade his audience or not, it depends on how much he knows about them. So, in argumentation, the prewriting process of audience analysis is crucial. And all through the paper, great attention must be paid to readers, to their needs and attitudes. Then, a good argumentative paper should have a valid viewpoint, sufficient evidence, logical reasoning, proper tone, and skillful use of the other types of writing.
Sure enough, argumentative papers are, by every means, essays. They are persuasive essays and take the three-part structure of the essay. While COMMENT tends to be subjective in character, scientific argument seeks to be objective.

Argumentative:
Examples: An argumentative essay may persuade a reader that. . .
• he or she should use public transportation instead of driving.
• cats are better than dogs.
An argumentative essay is one that attempts to persuade the reader to the writer s point of view. The writer can either be serious or funny, but always tries to convince the reader of the validity of his or her opinion. The essay may argue openly, or it may attempt to subtly persuade the reader by using irony or sarcasm.
Strategies:
1. A debatable point
1) Mere statements of facts
2) Statements of personal preference
3) Viewpoints that are generally accepted or can be easily verified


2. Sufficient evidence
3. Good logic
1) Inductive reasoning
All the cats we have seen or read about have whiskers . As far as we can determine, all the cats our friends and acquaintances have seen or read about also have whiskers. We therefore conclude that all cats have whiskers.
2) Deductive reasoning
e.g. All Rembrandt paintings are great works of art. The Night Watch is a Rembrandt painting. Therefore, The Night Watch is a great work of art.
4. Clear logic"
5. Good use of the other three types of writing — description, narration, and espe¬cially the various methods of exposition.
6. An honest and friendly attitude


Model   The Attraction of Entering University


Universities are the places for training scientists, engineers, doctors and teachers. As institutions of high learning, universities award degrees to students who have mastered the required knowledge in their majors. The university diploma is essential for a person s fu­ture career. For these reasons, nearly all young people are eager to enter universities.


The present number of universities can t meet people s need for higher education. Every year only a small number of middle school graduates are lucky enough to gain the admission. The majority of them are kept away from universities. That accounts for an acute competition and makes the university more attractive.


University is a paradise of young boys and girls. They can enjoy more freedom and touch more widely and colorfully about future life. University life is rich. University cam­pus is beautiful. Who will be unwilling to have a share in such an environment?





Model   Sports


Almost everybody likes sports. It is a kind of activity of recreation and exercise for everyone. If we do good sports quite often, we will become stronger and healthy enough to resist the invasion of diseases. When we become physically fit, we can work hard and live a happy life.


Different people like different sports. For example, children like a hide-and-seek; teenagers like playing football; middle-aged people prefer doing some free exercises.


As for me,a young college student of 20,1 am eager to make progress both intelli­gently and physically. That is why every morning I practice running, while in the afternoon I enjoy playing basketball with my classmates. If it were raining, I would try to do jumping exercises indoors. I fully understand the importance of sports in helping me to keep fit and study well.








Description and the Descriptive Essay-4 [原]

3. Comparison and Contrast


A comparison-and-contrast paper is one of the most common kinds of writing assignments because it reflects one of the most common kinds of thinking, the kind of thinking on which most practical decisions are probably based. We compare and contrast doctors and dentists; husbands and wives (actual and potential) and children; homes, neighborhoods, and cities, breakfast foods, pizza joints, and brands of soda pop.


 Three quick pointers:


1) As a matter of common sense and convenience, stick to two units for comparison and contrast. No regulation prohibits three or more units, but two are far easier to manage.


2) Avoid vague.


3) Don’t feel that you need to pay equal attention to comparisons and contrasts. In practice, most papers give much greater weight to similarities (comparisons) or to differences (contrasts) . Some papers may deal entirely with one or the other.



Patterns:


Pattern A


In the first pattern, the writer discusses one unit in its entirety before going on to the other.


Thesis statement: Shanghai is a more exciting city than Dalian.


(1)  Shanghai


A.     Cultural opportunities


B. Recreational opportunities


C.     Sense of history


D.     Physical beauty


(2)  Dalian


A.     Cultural opportunities


B. Recreational opportunities


C.     Sense of history


D. Physical beauty


Pattern B
Pattern B can be thought of as a seesaw . It swings back and forth between its two subjects.


Thesis statement: Shanghai is a more exciting city than Dalian.


(1) Cultural opportunities


A.     Shanghai


B. Dalian


(2) Recreational opportunities


A.     Shanghai


B. Dalian


(3 ) Sense of history


A. Shanghai


B. Dalian


(4) Physical beauty


A.     Shanghai


B.     Dalian


Which pattern?


(1) Pattern A tends to work better for short papers; pattern B, for long papers.


(2)Pattern A tends to work better with few subtopics; Pattern B,with many.



Analogy
[1] is a special kind of comparison. Instead of showing the similarities between two things of the same class, analogy shows the similarities between two things of different classes. When a writer compares X, a person’s life, to Y, a journey on land or water, he is using an analogy to explain and deepen the reader's understanding of X. Unlike a comparison which gives equal and balanced treatment to both X and Y, an analogy uses Y to explain X.





The guidelines for analogies are:
(1) The two items of the analogy are not of the same class.
(2) One of the items is used only to explain the order.
(3) The item used to clarify the other must be one quite familial- to the reader and will therefore help him understand the other.
(4) An analogy is used to support a particular point.
(5) An analogy provides only a new insight or perspective; it cannot be used to prove anything.


Model C   Shanghai and New York


Shanghai and New York are two of the biggest cities in the world. They are different in some ways, but they are similar in some other ways.


Shanghai is one of the most densely populated cities in Asia, and New York is one of the most densely populated cities in North America. The population of Shanghai is homo­geneous , but the population of New York is heterogeneous. The people in Shanghai speak Chinese; the people in New York speak English. The people in Shanghai take buses or ride bikes to go to work, the people in New York drive cars or take subways to get to work. The people in Shanghai use fans to keep cool, whereas the people in New York use air-conditioning.


Both Shanghai and New York are cities of great wealth and poverty. In both cities, there is a great deal of beauty and a great deal of ugliness. Many people in Shanghai are as kind and helpful as those in New York. Conversely, some people in Shanghai are as dangerous as those in New York. In both cities, there are people who work all day and people who work all night. Both cities are never asleep.


So to us visitors, both Shanghai and New York are a paradise and jungle.




Description and the Descriptive Essay-3 [原]

1Illustration(说明,解释)


Illustration is the use of example to illustrate a point. It is the most common, and often the most efficient, pattern of exposition.


Model  Use of Computers


There are some tasks for which computers are eminently suited, and others at which they are no good at all. 1We know that they are very good at carrying out large computers-number crunching. 2They are very good at storing information (a passive task), and selecting parts of it (an active task). 3They are very good at trying an enormous number of possible combinations of conditions because they can sift through the possibilities at immense speed. 4Computers can run highly complex process plants in industry, for example, in chemical works. 5Raw materials are fed in at one end, and a product emerges at the other; in between there may be an infinity of combinations of temperatures, pressures and intermediate products, maintaining the balance of which is essential to getting what you want out of the plant. The whole process can be controlled by a computer, which monitors the variables, and makes adjustments accordingly.6


2. Division and Classification


In division a subject commonly thought of as a single unit is reduced to its separate parts, e.g. Doctors use division in a physical checkup to examine a patient — heart, lungs, blood, and so forth.


Division is a natural, logical, and necessary form of thought. For writing purposes, however, it often tends to be more cut-and-dried[1] than classification.


In classification, we analyze the subject by arranging it into groups of categories rather than separate parts, e.g. college catalog classifies: required courses (必修课), elective courses(选修课).


 


Strategies:


1. Use only one principle of classification. Cars, for instance, can be classified by size. They can also be classified by manufacturer, price, body style, country of origin, and so on.


2. Be consistent. Once you have determined a principle of classification, stick with it throughout the paper.


3. Make the classifications as complete as possible. A paper classifying religions, for example, could go on forever, whereas a paper classifying "Major Religions in America" would have a much simpler task.


4. Acknowledge any complications. Classification is logical and essential, but it s also arbitrary and artificial.


Follow the persuasive principle. A good classification paper can utilize the persuasive principle in far more effective ways.








[1] ordinary; routine 惯常的;日常的


Model  The Year


We have four seasons in a year. They are spring, summer, autumn and winter.


Spring is the loveliest season in a year. In this season, flowers bloom and birds sing. The world is full of life. The weather is warm and the swallows begin to come back to live with us again. Poets describe spring as a season full of hope.


Summer is the most welcome season to school children. They have a long summer vacation. They may go to swim and play.


Autumn is a good season for picnics and games. In this season, leaves begin to fall and flowers begin to wither away. This is why some people say that autumn is a season of sadness and loneliness, but I do not think it is true.


Winter is cold. In some northern countries, snow begins to fall and most people have to stay indoors. But in tropical countries, the weather is still warm and the people go out of doors as usual. Winter is the season that draws near the New Year. When winter slow­ly passes, a new year will be born.






Description and the Descriptive Essay-2 [原]

There are two basic forms of description:


         factual


         personal.


 


Factual description is designed to furnish information—usually about physical appearance of some person, place, or thing—objectively and clearly. In other words, it presents the subject not as it seems to the writer alone, but as it exists to any objective observer. Organized spatially, it is usually serious, factual, and formal in tone, using simple, specific language and short sentences, while avoiding personal pronouns.


 


Personal description presents the writer's impression of some place or thing to interest and inform the reader. It follows the principle of describing things as they are to the writer. In the process of describing, the writer may reveal much about his own reactions, responses, impressions, and feelings about the thing he sees, hears, smells, tastes, or feels. This description often begins with a focusing statement of the dominant feature of what is described, and then proceeds according to some spatial plan of organization, which includes an indication of the point of view or position of the writer. To convey feelings strongly and evocatively, personal description should have rich details, precisely chosen words and varied sentence structures.


 


The following outline borrowed from The Writing Commitment, Third Edition can well help us see what the differences between the two types of description are, once the purpose is decided.


Factual                                 Personal


Purpose   To present information          To present an impression


Approach  Objective, dispassionate              Subjective, interpretative


Appeal                 To reason                                   To the senses


Tone               Matter-of-fact                                  Emotional


Coverage    Complete, exact                             Selective, some facts


Language   Simple, clear                                    Rich, suggestive


Uses          Writing in science,                          Novels, short stories,


industry, government,                     poems, personal narratives,


professions, business                                    some essays




Moreover, decided by the differences shown in the outline, factual and personal descriptions are organized in different ways. With the purpose to make a point, personal description usually takes a three-part structure with an introduction, a body, and a conclusion, which is the basic format of an essay. Partly because of this, personal description belongs to essay writing and takes the name of descriptive essay.


Among factual descriptions, there is one we name a process description. In describing how to do something, a writer presents not only the steps factually, but his personal idea so as to make the reader pleased to follow. Such a factual description takes the three-part structure as an essay, and it is commonly accepted as a form of expository writing.





Description and the Descriptive Essay-1 [原]

Students often ask," But how do I write a purely descriptive essay? What’s the point of description? What’s so different about it?" There are three characteristics of a purely descriptive essay which are worthy of remembering;


  A descriptive essay has one, clear dominant impression. If, for example you are describing a snowfall, it is important for you to decide and to let your reader know if it is threatening or lovely; in order to have one dominant impression it cannot be both. The dominant impression guides the author's selection of detail and is thereby made clear to the reader in the thesis sentence.


  A descriptive essay can be objective or subjective, giving the author a wide choice of tone, diction and attitude. For instance, an objective description of one’s dog would mention such facts as height, weight, coloring and so forth. A subjective description would include the above details, but would also stress the author’s feeling toward the dog, as well as its personality and habits.


  The purpose of a purely descriptive essay is to involve the reader enough so he or she can actually visualize the things being described. Therefore, it is important to use spe­cific and concrete details.


Conventions


   The descriptive essay relies on concrete, sensory detail to communicate its point. Remember, we have five senses, not one or two.


   The author of a descriptive essay must carefully select details to support the dominant impression. In other words, the author has the license to omit details which are in-congruent with the dominant impression unless the dominant impression is one which points out the discrepancies.


   Description very often relies on emotion to convey its point. Because of this, verbs, adverbs, and adjectives convey more to the reader than do nouns.


   Unless the description is objective, you must be sure that the dominant impression conveys an attitude.


 


Strategies


   Try giving all the details first; the dominant impression then is built from these details.


   Check your details to be sure that they are consistent with the dominant impression. You might even want to write down the five senses on a scratch piece of paper and check to see that you have covered them all.


   Try moving your reader through space and time chronologically. For instance, you might want to describe a train ride from start to destination, or a stream from its source to the point at which it joins the river.


   Use a then-and-now approach to show decay, change, or improvement. The house where you grew up might now be a rambling shack. The variations on this strategy are endless.


   Select an emotion and try to describe it. It might be more difficult to get started, but it can be worthwhile.


 

开首八法 [原]

俗话说,“万事开头难”,对于很多写文章的人来说,如何开首是一个很大的难题,而如何结尾也是少不了皱一番眉头、甚至头疼的。写作的开首既很重要,也是难于动笔的时候。文章无论长短,题目不分巨细繁简,都有3个基本成分:


开首
正文
结尾


常常有“凤头、猪肚、豹尾”之说。总的说来,文章开首(Introduction)的功能和目的无非是两个:
■ 引出、介绍题目;
■ 使读者对题目和下文产生浓厚的兴趣,因而又称为引言。


开首的长短视具体文章的篇幅和复杂程度而定,短者一个段落甚至一句话,长者数个段落甚至整个章节。洋洋洒洒的硕士或博士学位论文,一般都要用一个相当篇幅的序章来讲清题目的背景、理论框架、研究范围、调查方法、结果分析和总结等,作为论文的引言部分。当然,不同的修辞环境(题目、读者和目的)决定了文章该选择什么样的开首或引言,或长或短,或严肃认真或风趣幽默,或直截了当或含蓄迂回。一个写作经验丰富的人应该有意识并有能力选择调用不同的开首方式,以适用于不同的修辞环境,取得最佳的效果。不管怎样,文章的开首或引言是对潜在的读者发出邀请,引起他们的注意。写文章的人应当记住的是,在大多数的情况下,读者是没有任何责任非读你所写的文章不可的,在生活节奏越来越快,让人喘不过气来的今天,人们就更不想为乏味无趣的文章而浪费时间了。所以,只有把文章的开首写得引人入胜,很有些诱惑力,才算是向达到写作目的迈出第一、也是很重要的一步。文章内容再好、再重要,开首写得让读者打不起精神来,被随手扔到一边去,岂不是白费了那么多的心思?
文章开首的写法很多,除了平铺直叙的“本文将从xxx角度讨论xxx问题(This paper is going to discuss the problem of AAA from the angle of BBB.”一类的宣告式方法外(这类开首到处可见,这里不予介绍),还有叙事法、描述法、惊人事实或数据法、铺垫法、引语法、发问法、校正法和让步法等。


A.叙事法(Narrative)
采用叙事法的作者在文章的开首叙述一个掌故、经历、小故事或虚构(但在生活中有可能发生因而具有真实感)的场景来引出题目,点出文章的主旨。这种引言的好处是在文章一开始就以具体生动的故事引起读者的兴趣,诱导他们继续读下去。这种开首不仅可以引发读者的兴趣,而且有利于在作者和读者之间建立一种信赖感,如果所叙述的故事是写作者亲身经历的,还能于不知不觉中树立作者对所写题目的“权威。”从英语阅读材料来看,叙事法是一个十分流行的谋篇开首的方法,许多英语写作者都十分青睐,乐此不疲。
用叙事法为文章开首时不要花去过多过长的时间和空间来渲染故事,造成喧宾夺主的后果。叙事只是文章的引言部分,其目的是为了引起读者的兴趣和引出题目。不过,在叙事时,仍然要注意如何安排故事的结构(时间顺序、倒叙)、如何发展故事(场面描写、对话、悬念)、采用哪个叙事角度(第一人称的我和无所不知的第3人称)等。当然,叙事也完全可以用在文章的正文中,用来说明某一个观点、概念等。


B. 描述法 (Descriptive)
以一篇简短而文笔生动的描述开首的文章同样能够起到先声夺人、引起读者兴趣的效果。


C. 惊人事实或数据法(Startling Fact or Statistics)
令人张口结舌、更触目惊心的事实和数据更能吸引读者的注意力。


D.铺垫法 (preparatory)
许多作者喜欢在文章的开首先提供必要的背景资料、阐释关键的术语等,然后再引出正题和陈述文章的主旨。一般说来,这样的文章篇幅要大一些,题目所涉及到的内容要更严肃和复杂一些。


E.引语法 (Quotation)


也就是在文章的开首引用某个名言、格言和名人的话等等。不过,引用名言、格言和名人的话(不管是在文首还是在正文或结尾)切忌用得过多、过泛、过俗、过滥,言必称古人、名人和伟人,仿佛无引不成章,更不要以引言来掩饰自己思想的苍白甚或压服别人和读者。要知道,名言、格言和名人的话也并非是用金子铸成的,也是可以质疑的。好文章的精髓在于它闪烁着的智慧火花和独立的人生品格。


F.发问法(Provocative Question)
这也是一种较流行的文章开首的方法。采用这种方法的文章一般在开首先提出一个问题,以引起读者的注意、同感或思索等;所提的问题有时只关于你是否知道某一事实,有过某种感受或经历,有时则尖锐一些,这些发问,都可能会引起读者对下文的兴趣。


G.校正法(Corrective)
1. 采取这种结构的文章一般在开首就向读者习以为常、不加质疑的某些价值观、格言、信条和信念(“熟能生巧Practice makes perfect.”、“时间就是金钱 Time is money.”、“有钱能使鬼推磨。 All things are obedient to money.”、“诚实是最好的行为准则Honesty is the best policy.”、“所有的金发女郎都头脑简单……dumb blondes”)等提出质疑、商榷,或对当前流行的错误观点和偏见等提出挑战。这样的开首如写得好,会产生一种耳目一新甚至振聋发聩的感觉,令读者不得不重新审视自己先前的观点、看法和立场。


H. 让步法(Concession)
这种方法多用在争论文章的开首,作者先承认或认可对方观点中合情合理的部分,然后再提出自己的相反或反驳的观点。这种“让步’’的方法有利于在一开始就为作者树立一个通情达理的形象,有助于缓解敌对气氛,使本来持相反态度的读者更容易平下心来,听听作者到底有什么说法。有的时候,这种开首还能收到“欲贬先褒”、“欲擒故纵”的效果。下面是美国著名民权运动领袖马丁•路德金在狱中所写的一封信的开首:
Martin Luther King's
Letter from Birmingham Jail
[ N. B. All typographical errors are from the original source and therefore have not been corrected. A PDF version can be found here. ]
AUTHOR'S NOTE: This response to a published statement by eight fellow clergymen from Alabama (Bishop C. C. J. Carpenter, Bishop Joseph A. Durick, Rabbi Hilton L. Grafman, Bishop Paul Hardin, Bishop Holan B. Harmon, the Reverend George M. Murray. the Reverend Edward V. Ramage and the Reverend Earl Stallings) was composed under somewhat constricting circumstance. Begun on the margins of the newspaper in which the statement appeared while I was in jail, the letter was continued on scraps of writing paper supplied by a friendly Negro trusty, and concluded on a pad my attorneys were eventually permitted to leave me. Although the text remains in substance unaltered, I have indulged in the author's prerogative of polishing it for publication.
 
April 16, 1963
MY DEAR FELLOW CLERGYMEN
While confined here in the Birmingham city jail, I came across your recent statement calling my present activities "unwise and untimely." Seldom do I pause to answer criticism of my work and ideas. If I sought to answer all the criticisms that cross my desk, my secretaries would have little time for anything other than such correspondence in the course of the day, and I would have no time for constructive work. But since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I want to try to answer your statements in what I hope will be patient and reasonable terms.
身居伯明翰市监狱的我看到你们日前发表的一个声明,称我现在所进行的活动是“不明智的、不合时宜的。”我极少停下来考虑别人对我的活动和观点的批评。假设我试图回答所有出现在我的办公桌上的那些批评言帘卷西风论的话,我的秘书们就只能整天忙于应付,没有时间处理其他任何事情了,我也没有时间去干建设性的工作了。不过,我觉得你们是心地善良正直的人士,你们的批评意见是真心诚意地提出来的,因而,我愿意回答你们的批评,希望我的回答是耐心的和通情达理的。


有了这样让步性的开首垫底,那些“心地善良正直的人士”就只有心平气和地接受充满激情的、辛辣而时常带有火东篱把酒黄昏后药味的下文了。如果不是这样,而是一开始就把对方骂个狗血喷头,效果又会怎么样呢?


文章的开首还有其他一些方法,任凭你的想象去构造。有些开首方法更适用于这种文体或那种文体的文章,这样或那样的修辞环境(题目、读者和目的),没有一定或绝对的规律。原则只有一条:无论什么样的开首,它都应该是于文章的修辞环境以及所选择的风格相吻合。


 


(补充:


应试性文章的开头一般来说应尽量做到开门见山,用简单明白的叙述引出文章的话题,使阅卷人了解文章要谈论什么,一下于引起阅卷人的兴趣。作文常见的开头形式大致有以下几种:


1、开门见山,揭示主题。文章一开头就交待清楚文章的主题是什么。


2、交代人物、事情、时间或环境开头。在文章的开头,先把人物、事件和环境交待清楚。


3 回忆性的开头。用回忆的方法来开头。


4、概括性的开头。即对要在文章中叙述的人或事先作一个概括性的介绍。


5、介绍环境式的开头。即开头利用自然景物或自然环境引出要介绍的事物。


6、交待写作目的的开头。在文章的一开头就交待写作目的,如通过文章要表扬谁,批评谁,或说明一个什么问题等。








An Overview of Essay Writing课件 [原]

有关Email、Weblog和An Overview of Essay Writing 的课件


文件名:English Writing2.ppt (8M)
 
文件提取码: 5195170442522907
 
    当您的朋友需要提取此文件时只需:
     匿名提取文件连接 http://pickup.mofile.com/5195170442522907 
     或登录Mofile,使用提取码 5195170442522907 提取文件


b. Word Classfication in Style [原]

b. Word Classifications in Style (英语词汇的文体分类)
1) Formal words
Formal English may partake of literary words, most of which stem from Greek and Latin words.
In the period of Modern English (after 1500), the vocabulary increased tremendously, chiefly because of the Renaissance, an intellectual and cultural movement which swept over Europe and England beginning in the late Middle Ages and continuing into seventeenth century. The Renaissance started as educated men rediscovered the world of classical Greece and Rome, which had been partly forgotten during the Middle Ages. It began as a love affair with anything classical: art, philosophy, history, government, literature, and whatever else was ancient. A major by-product of this cultural rebirth was a belief among many English writers and scholars that what English needed was a large dose of Latin and Greek words. At the same time, there was a real need for words to keep pace with men's expanding knowledge. So, through gradual use, many Greek and Latin borrowings won a place in the language.

Here are some of the words and roots borrowed into English from Latin words: (以下是部分拉丁语词根和词汇)

Latin Roots in English
Latin Root Meaning English Words
ann- us ring, year annular; annual, annuity
aqua water aquatic, aquarium, aqua
audi- o (I) hear audition, auditory, audio
bell- um war belligerent, antebellum
bene well benefit, benevolent
cent- um hundred century, percent, cent
dic- o (I) say dictate, diction, edict
fer- o (I) carry ferry,transfer, refer
fin- is end, limit finish, finite, define
ign- is fire ignite, igneous, ignition
liber free liberate, liberal, liberty
loc- us place local, locate, locale
magn- us big magnitude, magnify
major bigger major, majority
maxim- us biggest maximal, maximize, maxim
mal- us bad malice, malady, malicious
man- us hand manual, manipulate
mar- e sea,ocean ( sub) marine, maritime
minor smaller, less minor, minority
minim- us smallest, very small minimum, miniature, mini-
multi- us many multiple , multiply, multi-
ped- ,pes foot pedestrian, pedal
port- o (I) carry export, porter, portable
voc- o (I) call vocal, revoke, vocation

English has not borrowed as extensively from Greek as it has from Latin; however, there are still thousands of words borrowed from Greek or based on Greek roots. Greek is a particularly rich source of medical terms.

Take a look at the following list to get an idea of the role Greek words and roots play in the English language(以下是部分希腊语词根和词汇):

Greek Roots in English
Greek Meaning English Word
aer air aerosol, aerobic, aeronautics
archai- os old archaeology, archaic
auto self automobile, autograph, automatic
bi - os life biography, bionic, biology
chron- os time chronicle, chronological
krat- os power, rule bureaucrat, autocrat, democrat
dem- os people democracy, demography
ge earth geography, geology
graph— o (I) write,draw autograph, epigraph, photograph
hydro water hydrant, hydrophobia, hydrogen
hyper over, beyond hyperactive, hyperventilate, hypercritical
mania madness mania, maniac, kleptomania
metr- on measure meter, odometer, altimeter
micr- os small, little microbe, microchip
mon- os alone, only monopoly, monochrome, monoxide
path- e suffering psychopath, pathology
phil- os fondness; friend philosophy, anglophile, Philadelphia
phon- e sound,speech telephone, phonics, microphone
pol- is city, nation metropolis, police, politics
pol- ys many polygon, polytechnical, polychrome
scop- eo watch, look microscope, telescope, stethoscope
syn,sym with synthesis, sympathy, symphony
tele afar, distant television, telephone, telescope
tri- a three trident, tripod, triple

Not all of these words were borrowed directly from Greek; some were borrowed from French who borrowed them from Greek. The important point is that the meanings of these words are what they are because of the original meaning of the Greek roots in them. Those roots are still being used today by doctors and others to create new English words.

Besides, a great many of the Latin and Greek words were borrowed in part, as prefixes, suffixes. For example, auto, a Greek form meaning "self," has given meaning to almost 300 words in modern English. Other useful borrowed affixes include -ology, as in methodology; inter-,as in interscholastic; pre-,as in prelude; and pro- as in pronoun.

As a rule, the words borrowed from these languages are the kind which are used for¬mally rather than in everyday conversation, perhaps because they were pushed into the language mainly through writing, for example; propagate, agile, emancipate, admiration, interrogate, reiterate, auxiliary from Latin; anonymous, catastrophe, misanthrope, epitome from Greek.

The borrowing from Greek and Latin is still going on, by the way. Physics, botany, biology, zoology, chemistry, geology — in fact, all areas of science — turn to Greek and Latin when new words are needed. Penicillin, astrophysics, and sulfa come immediately to mind as examples. Many such words contain three or more than three syllables; they are often used in formal writing such as scholarly or theoretical works, political and legal documents and formal lectures and addresses.
Even today most of academic words, technical terms and abstract words come from Latin words(当今我们仍然看到很多学术词汇、技术用语、专门术语和一些抽象概念词语来自拉丁语和希腊语,例如):
dedicate (奉献), esteem(尊重), benevolent(仁慈), enterprise(事业), endeavor(努力),reproach (责备), malignity (恶意) ,tuberculosis(结核病), advocate (辨护人), appeal (上诉), civil (民事的), jurist (法律的), abscond (潜逃), enervate (使无力), controversy (争论), malediction (诅咒), discrepancy (矛盾), collusion (勾结)

Many Greek words are special terms;
hepatitis (肝炎), neurology (神经病学), automaton (机器人), aristocracy (贵族), pandemonium (大混乱), chronological (按时间顺序的), orthopedic (整形外科), epidermis (表皮), astronomical (天文学的), phenomenon (现象), protozoan (原生动物), synthesis (综合), asterisk (星号), epigram (警语)
These formal words are used now because scholarly papers usually discuss some complex questions. When these words are used the questions can be made theoretically clear and exact.

2) Colloquial words(非正式文体词汇,多用于口语)
Colloquial means conversational. This is the language we use between friends when we speak or when we write informal messages to each other. Colloquial English, when read in a formal writing assignment, appears out of place and confuses the reader. Most colloquial words are of Anglo-Saxon origin. Since these words are sometimes used with the accompaniment of gesture, expression or posture and a particular situational environment in conversation, speakers choose the words casually and inaccurately.

Some colloquial words:

thing, place, get, nice, really, well, make up, make away with, make-up, let-down, to baby sit, math, deli, ghastly, bet, window-shop, etc.

Some colloquial expressions:

about to 正要...刚要... Peggy is about to leave.
in advance 事先 We booked the tickets in advance.
alive and kicking 欢蹦乱跳 I love Berlin. It's alive and kicking.
all of a sudden 突然 I went out in the sun. Then, all of a sudden, it started to rain.
all over the place 到处 There are environmental problems all over the place.
to go from bad to worse 越来越坏 My marks have gone from bad to worse last term.
to bag something 获得,收集 Tom bagged this special offer at an online-shop.
beat-up 筋疲力尽 Mark is too beat-up to play tennis this evening.
to do the best 尽力 He always does his best.
blabber 饶舌的人, Don't listen to him, he's a blabber.
to blag something 抢劫,盗取 Once in a while young Tim blags his father's cigarettes.
bloody 该死的,非常的 What a bloody day!
to be blue 无精打采的 She's been feeling blue all day.
bouncer 保镖 A bouncer's task is to keep out those who might cause trouble.
be broke 身无分文 I can't go to the cinema with you, I’m broke.
to brush up on something 温习,复习 I have to brush up on my Spanish.
buzz 愉快的沉醉 Parachuting gives me a real buzz.
buzz off! 快点走开 Buzz, off! I have told you not to come to my place anymore.
a close call 侥幸的脱险 I had a close call. A stone almost hit me!
to catch something 听清 Sorry, I didn't quite catch your telephone number.
to catch a cold 感冒 I walked out in the rain, so I caught a cold.
not have a clue 毫无头绪 I don't have a clue about repairing the faucet.
come off it! 别吹牛了,住口 Come off it! This isn't the truth.
as far as I'm concerned 就我而言 As far as I' m concerned, I’d like to watch the film.
cop 警薄雾浓云愁永昼官,巡警 A big crowd of cops gathered in front of the Bank of England.
corner shop [英]住宅区附件的小商店 Mother really liked corner shops when she was a child.
cram school 补习班 Many pupils have to go to a cram school in the afternoon.
on credit 赊帐 I' d not buy the new TV on credit.
cut 削减,下降 Mr. Brown made big cuts of $ 500 million.
damned 该死的 I hate going through that damned rush hour.
to dig in one's heels 固执地坚持立场;稳固自己的地位 If you take or express an opinion and refuse to change it, you dig in your heels.
to disrespect some¬body or something 不尊敬,不尊重 Poor people shouldn't be disrespected.
to do one's best 尽全力 He does his best to fix the car.
to do someone good 有益于某人 Let's go on a holiday. The sun will do us good.
to do without 免除,不用 If there's no milk for the tea, it' 11 do without.
down under 澳大利亚或新西兰 Down under will be my next destination.
to be up to one's ears 深陷于 Sorry, I can't go out with you. I' m up to my ears in work.
every now and then 常常,不时地 Every now and then I play the piano.
every other 每隔,所有其他 He comes to me every other week.
to see eye to eye 见解一致 The World Bank and the IMF see eye to eye on Asia
fair enough 还公道 Fair enough! Let's go out for dinner tonight.
fiddle 小提琴 Fiddles are necessary to play folk music.
to keep the fingers crossed 祈愿,祈告 I have to see the doctor for a checkup. — I’ll keep my fingers crossed for you.
flutter [多用于英国]小赌注;赌博 The old lady loves a flutter on the slot machine.
folk 人民;民族 We all are fond of the Irish folk.
for free 免费 I was lucky. I got this CD for free.
freak out (与out连用)吸毒引起极度兴奋 Ron freaked out when he heard that Peter had broken his car.
fridge 电冰箱 Butter must be kept in the fridge.
to get a lot of stick 遇到许多 In his new job Jack gets a lot of stick.
to get cold feet 临阵畏缩 He wanted to speak to the boss, but he finally didn’t. He got cold feet.
to get fed up with somebody or something 受够了某人或某事 They get fed up with their neighbor’s parties.
to get rid of somebody or something 摆脱,除去 We have to get rid of that old car.
to get something 获得 Jason, did you finally get your exercise?
to take somebody or something for granted 认为理所当然 I took it for granted the meeting was on Tuesday.
greasy spoon [美俚](供应廉价食物,卫生条件差的)下等餐馆 I’d rather starve instead of eating at a greasy spoon.
groovy 非常好的 This cocktail tastes groovy.
guy 家伙,人 Jennifer fell in love with the guy from the supermarket.
had better 最好 You'd better go now.
on the other hand 另一方面 Sue likes pop music; on the other hand she doesn’t like discos.
to give a hand; to lend a hand 帮助某人 Can you give me a hand with the cupboard?
hard graft 费力的活 Building our house has been a hard graft.
by heart 熟记 My brother has to learn the poem by heart.
hip 时髦的 Molly always knows what's hip.
to be hooked on something 着迷于某事 Bill is hooked on car racing.
to jump down somebody's throat 突然打断某人 The boss jumped down my throat because I was late for work.
knackered 筋疲力尽的 What has happened? You look so knackered.
to keep an eye on something, somebody 照看,密切注视 Will you keep an eye on my baby?
little by little 逐渐 Andrew had an accident while playing ice-hockey. Little by little he begins to walk.
to look forward to something 盼望某事 I look forward to my holidays in Rome.
to make ends meet 使收支相抵,量入为出 She’s been out of work for years. How can she make ends meet with four children?
to make friends easily 易于交友 Chris makes friends easily.
to make oneself at home 无拘无束 Come in, please. Make yourself at home.
to make the most 充分利用 Let's make the most of the last day of our holidays.
to make up one' s mind 下决心 Did you make your mind up to buy a new computer?
mash 马铃薯泥 I love Grandma's homemade mash.
What’s the matter? 怎么回事? You look sad. What's the matter with you?
to be mean 吝啬 Grandfather is mean with money.
to meet somebody halfway 折中办法 I don't like his ideas, but I can imagine that we should meet halfway.
to mess around 胡乱摆弄 The clown messed around to make the children laugh.
to mess up 陷入困境 Sandy has really messed up this time.

Colloquial English is a term given to spoken English used in common speech.

For example:
She was [u]over the moon [/u]when she heard about her PLAB result, (delighted)
He is going to be [u]in hot water[/u]. (in trouble, in difficulty)
She was [u]beating about the bush[/u]. (not getting to the point)
(The [u]long and short [/u]of it is. . . (main point, gist)
He [u]threw in the towel[/u]. (gave up)
His mother [u]passed away[/u]. (died)
She was a bit [u]cheesed off[/u]. (upset; very indignant)
He was [u]head over heals.[/u]/went head over heels with the news (overjoyed)
Fell [u]head over heels [/u]in love; was [u]head over heels[/u] in debt (hopelessly, deeply)
[u]Once in a blue moon [/u](on a rare occasion)
Her plans are a [u]pie in the sky[/u]. (unrealistic)
That's like [u]putting the cart before the horse[/u]. (doing the 2nd before 1st)
She almost [u]had a fit [/u]when she found out where he had been. (was shocked)
He [u]ate like a horse[/u]. (ate hungrily)
She was [u]down in the dumps[/u]. (depressed)
They [u]sent him to Coventry[/u]. (shunned him, stopped talking to him)
I have got a [u]frog in my throat[/u]. (hoarse voice)
Her grandmother was [u]hard of hearing[/u]. (deaf, hearing-impaired)
He decided to [u]pack it in[/u]. (give up)
My child is [u]burning up[/u]. (has a fever)
She's [u]been sick [/u]all day. (been vomiting. But, of course, the word sick
has many other senses as well) She [u]blew the fuse[/u]. (shouted a lot angrily)
He had [u]had enough[/u]. (gave up)
She was told to keep her [u]fingers crossed[/u]. (hope for the best)
His father has [u]gone to Heaven[/u]. (died)
He [u]left no stone unturned[/u]. (tried everything)
Her grandfather had [u]lost his head[/u]. (had gone mad)
He ate a lot of [u]junk food[/u]. (fast food, food with little nutritional value)

************************************************************************************
3) Common words(中性文体意义的普通词汇)
The great majority of common words (the core of the English vocabulary) are used in both literary and colloquial contexts. So it follows that common words are good for all kinds of writing. The common words are closely connected with our daily life. Among them basic words are included:

air, sun, earth, snow, rain, spring, bread, water, food, fish, father, mother, sister , brother, live, work, feel, see, hear, small, long, white, etc.

These basic words can form other common words by adding prefixes and suffixes, such as(大量基本词汇还可以通过前缀、后缀构成其他普通词,例如):

air------airbus, air-condition, aircraft, air-cushion, airflow, airdate, air-drop, air jacket , air show, airsick, airworthy
back------backache, backbench, backbite, back channel, backstage, backstroke, backslap, backswing, backtalk, background
black------blackberry, blackbird, blackboard, blackface, black-hearted, blacksmith
in------inasmuch, income, indoors, inland, inlet, input, inside, instep, into, itself
man------airman, ploughman, postman, chairman, manhood, manly, man-like, manful , man-made, man-eating, manslaughter, manpower, man of letters
over------overall, overbalancing, overbearing, overcoat, overcome, overdo, overdressed , overfull, overhanging, overhead, overland, overleaf, overloud, overseas , overseer, overshoe, overstatement, overtake, overtaxed, overtime, overturned , overuse, overvalued, overweight, overworking
re------receiver, reciprocal, rectangle, recurring, reference, reflux, reinforcement, relative, remark, remedy, rent, repair, reproduction, repulsion, resistance, residue , resolution, result, retail, revenge, reversible
some------somebody, someday, somehow, someone, something, sometime, somewhat, somewhere
under------underclothing, undercooked, undergo, undergrowth, undermined, undersigned, undersized, understatement, undertake, undervalued

For most writers, learning to use appropriate words and language for formal writing assignments becomes a difficult task. Many of us are comfortable with the language that we speak (colloquial), and when we write, we attempt to translate what we would "say" to the written page. This is a major mistake when writing for college.
College writing assignments require formal diction. No longer are the mental shortcuts we use in our spoken language acceptable. Your professors will expect formal/standard diction from you because formal/standard diction is recognized and is acceptable in any situation or context.
However less formal written English, which carries the burden of most printed matter these days (books, magazines, and newspapers),may be less impressive in tone than formal English, but it moves faster, is perhaps more readable, and is appropriate for almost all occasions. Its sentences are short and less ponderous than those of formal English; its vocabulary is well-chosen, precise, but not stilted. Its vocabulary base is broader than that of formal English and draws from all levels of language.

**************************************************************************
*Exercise
Choose the word different from the other three in meaning.
1. A.careful B.alert C.wary D.upstart
2. A. approaching B. foreshadowing C. forthcoming D. upcoming
3. A. undeceived B. beguiled C. misled D. misinformed
4. A. biased B. underprivileged C. prejudiced D. unfair
5. A. unmask B. ungag C. expose D. unveil
6. A. abridged B. incomplete C. uncut D. shortened
7. A. released B. shackled C. restrained D. confined
8. A. withdrawn B. unresponsive C. underdeveloped D. unsociable
9. A. destroy B. eradicate C. uproot D. unscramble
_______ 10. A.underscore B.underline C.understudy D.emphasize
11. A.ancestor B.forefather C.descendant D.forebear
12. A. outlived B. survived C. outlasted D. outwitted
13. A. principal B. foremost C. latest D. chief
14. A. misgiving B. blunder C. foreboding D. presentiment
15. A. overcast B. overburden C. overload D. overtax
16. A. luck B. foresight C. prudence D. forethought
17. A. output B. yield C. surrender D. product
18. A.misfortune B.mishap C.mischance D.mistrust
19. A. overbearing B. beguiling C. deluding D. misleading
20. A. prediction B. prophecy C. forecast D. fortune

************************************************************************
:em222:The above keys please find in the following chapters.

3. Formal and Informal Styles (c.f. 《手册》P383-292)
The following are some specific features that distinguish these two types of English:
a. Contractions(缩写式) like don ' t, mustn't, he's, I've, etc., are generally used in informal writing. In formal writing the full forms are preferred: do not, must not, etc.

b. For indefinite reference (不确定人称) you is often used in informal English while one is often used in formal English, as:

You never know what new measures the President will take.
One never knows what new measures the President will take. (Formal)

c. In informal English who can be used instead of whom as an object in questions, e.g.

Who (Whom) did you see in that room?
Who is the secretary talking with?
With whom is the secretary talking? (Formal)

d. In informal English that can often be left out before an object clause, especially after verbs of saying or thinking, e.g.

She said (that) she would come.
He told me (that) he liked the house.
I think (that) it's a good idea.
e. In informal style they is often used as a pronoun referring to everyone, everybody, someone, somebody, anyone, anybody, no one, nobody, e.g.
Has everyone finished doing their exercises?
Has everyone finished doing his or her exercises? (Formal)
Anyone can take a brochure if they want it.
Anyone can take a brochure if he or she wants it. (Formal)
f. When the subject is I or he (she, it), was can be used instead of were in the subjunctive mood in informal style:
The old lady treated him as if he was her own son. I wish he was here with us.
g. Participial phrases (分词短语) are generally used in formal style:

Having been warned of the impending storm, the captain decided to put off the voyage.
When the captain heard a storm was coming, he decided to put off the voyage. (Less formal)
Badly defeated in the match, the team returned in low spirits.
The team was badly defeated in the match, and they returned in low spirits. (Less formal)
She decided to go home at once, knowing that her mother was anxiously waiting for her.
She decided to go home at once. She knew her mother was anxiously waiting for her. (Less formal)

h. Nominative absolute constructions (独立主格结构)are generally used in formal style:

The weather being fine, a large number of people went to climb the Western Hills.
As the weather was fine, a large number of people went to climb the Western Hills. (Less formal)
Africa is the second largest continent, its size being about three times that of China.
Africa is the second largest continent. It is about three times as large as China. (Less formal)

i. Adjectival and adverbial phrases placed before the subject often make the sentence formal:

A famous professor of biology, Dr. Jones was the new president of the university.
Eager to finish the work, he continued to do it until midnight.

j. Parenthetical remarks (插入语)often make a sentence formal:

This village has built, in less than ten years, several small factories that bring in more income than the farm produce every year.
He shaved very slowly and carefully, as was his custom, in front of the mirror above the sink.
All the people present—Chairman Smith, Professors Brown, James and Williams, and the secretary—supported the motion.

k. A series of nouns, verbs, or adjectives may make a sentence sound formal:

His anger prevented him from doing, saying, and listening to anything.
She has experienced love and hate, grief and happiness.

l. As we discussed , the following types of sentences are often used in formal style:

Long sentences;
Compound-complex sentences; Sentences with parallel constructions;
Balanced sentences;
Periodic sentences. (循环句)

m. As for vocabulary, everyday words are mainly of Anglo-Saxon origin, while words of Greek, French and Latin origins are mostly formal or learned words. It would be helpful, when you learn a formal word, to remember an informal word with the same or nearly the same meaning, for example:
Formal
commence
profound
fortunate
terminate
proceed
elevate
gratuitous
explicit
identical
erudite
endeavor
eccentric
Informal
begin
deep
lucky
end
begin or continue
raise
unnecessary
clear
same
learned
try
queer, strange

n. Phrasal verbs are colloquial and often used in conversational style:
Phrasal Verbs
go on
carry on
look into
come across
put up with
get away
turn out
Single Verbs
continue(v.i.)
continue(v.t. )
investigate
meet
bear, endure
leave, escape
produce

Some phrasal verbs may have more than one meaning and be both transitive and intransitive.

o. Shortened words like photo, ad, bike, gym, prep, pop, and vet are commonly used in everyday conversation. They are not often used in formal writing.
p. Slang words and expressions are often too casual and informal to be used in formal writing. Many slang words have short lives and may disappear in a few years; some of them may become a part of the colloquial vocabulary. Here are a few examples:

Slang Common
lousy bad, terrible
swell good, excellent
mighty very, extremely
neat, cool fine, pleasant
in hot water in trouble
make a hit succeed in doing something
make a big deal about something exaggerate the seriousness of something
shoot the breeze spend time chatting
talk someone’s head off speak too much

It is good to know such slang words and expressions because people may use them in conversation, but foreign students have to be careful about using them in speech or writing.

The above are some of the common differences between formal and informal English. However, customs of using language are flexible and change with the times. They are not absolute or static. If we compare contemporary prose with that of the 19th century, we will find that prose today is generally simpler, easier, and livelier. Colloquialism(口语化) seems to be the general trend. While we pay attention to the differences between various styles, it is necessary for us to keep watch on new tendencies in prose style.

*Excerises (c.f. 《手册》P292-295)

D. Formal and Informal Styles [原]

D. Formal and Informal Styles English has now become one of the most widely used languages in the world. In 1500, English was an insignificant language, spoken by the people living on a small island. Now it is spoken as the first language by over a quarter of a billion people and as a second language by many millions more. When people speak English, we may be able to tell which English it is --- American English, Australian English, British English, and Indian English and so on. Besides, for different purpose, we use different kinds of English: everyday English, business English, commercial English, diplomatic English, medical English, scientific English, technical English, legal English, journalistic English and so on. We also use different degrees of formality and can differentiate between formal English, informal English, and colloquial English. 1. The Meaning of Style All types of writing, like stories, legal documents and personal letters, have much in common: they contain many of the common words used by people everywhere and every day, observe the same basic morphological and syntactical rules, and follow the same custom of using punctuation marks. In other words, no writing, or speech, for that matter, can be done without using the common core of the English language. However, there are also differences between different types of writing. In a personal letter, for instance, sentences are usually short and simple, even incomplete, and most words are those used in daily conversation, easy and even slangy. In a legal document, on the other hand, most sentences are long and involved, and many, if not most, of the words are polysyllabic, with special terms difficult for ordinary people to understand. Special features like these in language are a matter of style. The word style has several senses: ● it may refer to a writer’s habitual or peculiar way of using language, or ● the prevalent features of the language of a certain period, or ● the characteristic aspects of the lan¬guage of a certain type of writing. ● It may also mean grace or elegance in writing, as in "He has no style.” Style expresses the writer's individuality through his choice of words and sentence patterns, and his selection and arrangement of material. Style frequently reflects the writer's personality, mood, attitudes, education, and general background. There are different kinds of styles: homely(家常的), coarse(粗鄙的), refined(优雅的), ironic(讽刺的), vulgar(通俗的), plain(朴素的), childlike(天真的), formal(正式的), informal(非正式的), wordy(冗(rǒng)长的), colloquial(口语的), direct(直率的), grandiloquent(浮夸的), and so on. We choose words to suit the audience, the occasion, the topic, and the genre (e.g., short story, essay, and argumentation). Certain words, exact and concrete as they are, are excluded from formal use, because they are not appropriate for formal occasion. It would be absurd if slang terms of vulgarisms were used long sentences and complex grammatical structures were used in a friendly letter. Yet if we have some idea of different styles, but don't know when to use which, this knowledge is worse than useless. This is an example of a very formal expression alongside a colloquialism. Bags of fun is a slang term whereas extremely gracious is very formal language. Here is another example of the kind to show the inappropriateness of a formal style mixed with colloquialism. In a letter of application, you begin thus: Dear Sirs, I am writing to you in the hope that you still have a vacant place in your department. If you have not yet employed anyone, I should like my application for the position to be considered. And you conclude with: "As to my character and fitness for the job, please rest assured that I am sure smart." In this last sentence, job may be rather too informal; employment or post would be more suitable. Smart is a colloquialism that means "mentally alert, quick-witted, and talented". Moreover, the sentence I am sure smart is very informal and colloquial, and so it is inappropriate for the letter. 2.Language Style versus Word Style (语言的文体与文体词) Many people have difficulty developing an effective style, however, because they think that a good style is either a magical gift that one acquires at birth or the result of learning a set of infinitely complex rules. Neither of these impressions is correct. Style is a matter of decisions --bad or good -- that can be made about every word one uses; style is therefore something that one can think rationally about and something that one can learn. What one learns, however, is not merely a collection of arbitrary rules (though rules are of considerable importance; it is, instead, the habit of making conscious choices according to rational principles. a. Style in FL writing (语言的文体意义) Understanding formal and informal styles A familiar analogy to compare our language to our clothes in this respect may help us understand the language style better: for formal occasions we dress up; for informal occasions we dress down, suiting our dress to the situation. The analogy is still valid, but in an age which seems to be rejecting formalism, our ideas of what is appropriate for formal occasions are beginning to change. Although we still recognize a formal situation, we treat it with more freedom than formerly, both in our dress and in our language. Much serious writing is cast in informal English these days, rather than in the stricter usage of formal English. Sometimes they have not a clear division between them. Formal English is now chiefly reserved for serious newspapers, textbooks, scholarly work, formal lectures, official documents, speeches by important people and legal and other official documents designed to be impressive. They are fancier than conversational English: They may include archaic or legalistic expressions; they will admit of no slang or contractions. Their grammar is traditional, their sentences long. A familiar sample of formal English: We hold those truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that their Creator endows them with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that, whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. — The Declaration of Independence The following is a personal letter from Dr. Samuel Johnson to Lord Chesterfield, who had denied Johnson's earlier request for financial help at the beginning of Johnson's writing career: Seven years, my lord, have now passed since I waited in your outward rooms or was repulsed from your door; during which time I have been pushing on my work through difficulties, of which it is useless to complain, and have brought it at last to the verge of publication, without one act of assistance, one word of encouragement, or one smile of favor. Such treatment I did not expect, for I never had a patron before. . . Is not a patron, my Lord, one who looks with unconcern on a man struggling for life in the water, and when he has reached ground encumbers him with help? The notice, which you have been pleased to take of my labors, had it been early, had been better kind. But it has been delayed till I am indifferent, and cannot enjoy it; till I am solitary, and cannot impart it; till I am known, and do not want it. I hope it is not very cynical asperity not to confess obligations where no benefit has been received or to be unwilling that the public should consider me as owing that to a patron which Providence has enabled me to do for my self... For I have long been wakened from that dream of hope in which I once boasted myself with much exultation, my lord. Your lordship's most humble, most obedient servant, Samuel Johnson. — From a letter written by Dr Samuel Johnson to Lord Chesterfield (Writing in the eighteenth century, Johnson has a style that is very formal. The passage is filled with balanced sentences and parallel forms. Although the letter is extremely polite on the surface, the underlying feeling is one of bitter irony.) A scientific description of a species of anemic fish, the ice fish: Without attempting to guess what further study will show, I believe that the answer to the question of how these anemic fishes have managed to evolve is to be found in their unique ecological setting. In the case of the ice fish, for example, its major physiological asset--an unusually large volume of blood circulation — by itself would probably not be enough to keep the animal alive in temperate waters. Only when this characteristic is combined with the Antarctic’s low and stable water temperature and that environment’s abundant supply of food and oxygen is the survival of these peculiar animals possible. In fact, it is hard to imagine any other marine or freshwater environment that would offer a similar chance of survival should another family of anemic fishes begin to evolve elsewhere in the world. —"The Ice Fish," Julian T. Ruud, Scientific America (November 1965) (The style of this passage is quite formal, its vocabulary somewhat scientific. Sentences are rather long and moderately complex. The writer is objective, logical, and direct.) A sociological study of American society: The all-American radio heroes, from the Lone Ranger to Jack Armstrong, were for many reasons more sexless than their movie counter-parts. Emotion was out, and sex wasn't for kids anyhow. The Shadow, who learned how to cloud men's minds in the Orient (dig),may have had a little thing going with Margo Lane (not to be confused with Lois Lane, friend of Clark Kent, alias Superman), just as Perry Mason would, in later years of television, become a little cozy with Delia Street. But for the most part, love and its problems were relegated to the soap operas, where the Americanism was either institution¬al, honoring the family and the small town, or nonexistent, leaving the mythic American unencumbered, either by family or by feeling, to press the fight. —" Love and Radio in the U.S.A." Peter Schrag, The Decline of the WASP Notable in this passage is the sharp contrast in style between the opening looseness of diction and the elevated word choice at the end. Even though many writers avoid using colloquialisms because they quickly go out of fashion, Schrag felt free to include one (dig),perhaps to reproduce more accurately the texture of the time. Having done this,he swings dramatically from relying on informal language (anyhow, had a thing going, become a little cozy with) to using formal words that suggest the university classroom (relegated, mythic, unencumbered). Which style do you think is more effective, one like Schrag' s, that mixes levels of languages,or one like Krutch's in the following selection,"The Mystique of the Desert," that maintains a single language level? An essay about desert life: To those who do listen, the desert speaks of things with an emphasis quite different from that of the shore, the mountains, the valleys, or the plains. Whereas they invite action and suggest limitless opportunity, exhaustless resources, the implications and the mood of the desert are something different. For one thing, the desert is conservative, not radical. It is more likely to provoke awe than to invite conquest. It does not, like the plains, say, "Only turn the sod and uncountable riches will spring up." The heroism which it en¬courages is the heroism of endurance, not that of conquest.... The desert is " the last frontier' in more senses than one. It is the last because it was the latest reached, but it is the last because it is, in many ways, a frontier which can not be crossed. It brings man up against his limitations, turns him in upon himself, and suggests values which more indul¬gent regions minimize. Sometimes it inclines to contemplation men who have never contemplated before. And of all answers to the question "What is a desert good for?" "Contemplation" is perhaps the best. — "The Mystique of the Desert," Joseph Wood Krutch, Ten contemporary Thinkers In contrast to the mixture of "pop" and styles in the passage just before this last one, the style of this section is unified, rhydimical, and flowing. The writer unfolds his ideas slowly and deliberately, in short, graceful sentences. Like some of the other writers, he uses repetition and parallel structure. This style is representative of the reflective writ¬ing found in many personal essays. A moment of fantasy in a children's book, in which Alice is falling down a seemingly bottomless pit: Down, down, down. There was nothing else to do, so Alice soon began talking again. "Dinah'11 miss me very much tonight, I should think!"(Dinah was the cat.) “I hope they will remember her saucer of milk at teatime. Dinah, my dear! I wish you were down here with me! There are no mice in the air, I' m afraid, but you might catch a bat, and that's very like a mouse,you know. But do cats eat bats,I wonder?" And here Alice began to get rather sleepy, and went on saying to herself, in a dreamy sort of way, "Do cats eat bats? Do cats eat bats?" and sometimes "Do bats eat cats?" for, you see, as she couldn't answer either question,it didn' t much matter which way she put it. She felt that she was dozing off, and had just begun to dream that she was walking hand in hand with Dinah, and was saying to her very earnestly, "Now Dinah, tell me the truth, did you ever eat a bat?" when suddenly, thump! thump! Down she came upon a heap of sticks and dry leaves, and the fall was over. —"Alice Falling," Lewis Carroll, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (This style is humorous and whimsical. The word choice in the selection is simple, and it is written in an informal, colloquial manner.) In choosing a level of formality, above all be consistent. When a writer's voice shifts from one level of formality to another, readers receive a mixed message. For example: Once a pitcher for the Cincinnati Reds, Bob shared with me the secrets of his trade. His lesson commenced (began) with his famous curve ball, implemented (done) by tucking the little finger behind the ball instead of holding it straight out. Next he elucidated (revealed) the mysteries of the sucker pitch, a slow ball coming behind a fast windup. (Words such as commenced and elucidated are inappropriate for the subject matter, and they clash with informal terms such as sucker pitch and fast windup.) Informal writing is appropriate for private letters, articles in popular magazines, and business correspondence between close associates. Like spoken conversation, it allows contractions and colloquial words. Vocabulary and sentence structure are rarely complex. For most college and professional writing, some degree of formality is appropriate. Formal writing emphasizes the importance of its subject and the exactness of its information. It assumes a distant relationship between writer and audience. An impersonal point of view, a sophisticated vocabulary, and complex sentence structures are typical of formal writing. Besides contraction (don't, he'11. . .), colloquial words such as kids or buddy are out of place. * * * * * As you contrast the writing styles represented here, you can see how flexible English prose is, how well it offers the opportunity for a variety of expression. Sentences have become shorter. Vocabulary is generally simpler today; fewer words derived from Latin are being used. Elaborately balanced sentences have gone out of fashion. In their place have come sentences subordinated by such popularly modern means as participial phrases and adjectives and adverb clauses. Both concise parallel structures and the compound predicate have helped to make written expression in English become more direct. Transitions have become increasingly important. Elliptical phrases, appositives, and single-word modifiers permit the contemporary writer to express his idea in fewer words than a writer of English a century ago would normally have used. Probably the chief trend in contemporary English prose style, as in modern clothing styles, is away from formality towards a great informality. ****************************************************** *Exercise Compare and discuss the pairs of, sentences given below. 1. It is a widespread but unproven hypothesis that the parameters of significant personal change for persons in midlife are extremely narrow. It is a widely held myth that middle-aged people can not change. 2. As I covered the boats with marsh grass, the perspiration I had worked up evaporated in the wind, making the cold morning air seem even colder. As I covered the boats with marsh grass, the sweat I had worked up evaporated in the wind, making the cold morning air seem even colder. 3. A career in transportation management offers many things. A career in transportation management offers challenges and rewards. 4. The fans were migrating up the bleachers in search of good seats. The fans were climbing up the bleachers in search of good seats. 5. He stormed into the room like a bull in a China shop. He stormed into the room like a tornado. 6. Hours of long practice often determine an excellent musician from a sloppy one. Hours of long practice often make the difference between an excellent musician and a sloppy one. 7. I told him that he was playing with fire when I learned that he intended to spy on the trustees' meeting. I told him that he was taking a terrible risk when I heard that he intended to spy on the trustees' meeting. 8. Crossing Utah' s salt flats in his new Corvette, my father flew under a full head of stream. Crossing Utah's salt flats in his new Corvette,my father flew at jet speed. 9. When he heard about the accident he turned white as a sheet. When he heard about the accident,the color drained from his face. 10. Migrations to famed locales of exotica are the diurnal activity of those who have easy access to excess financial resources. Migrations to famed locales of exotica are the diurnal activity of those who have easy access to excess financial resources.

C. Process of Writing [原]

C. Process of Writing (写作的过程) 一篇文章不仅是一个个人心智和情感的抒发,而且是一个社会行为。原因如下: ● 作者是社会的一员,无时无刻不受社会(包括历史、文化和经济等)环境的影响。用语言来思考本身就是一个社会行为,因为只有在社会环境里才能学会语言,而语言这个符号系统本身就是社会历史发展的产物,充满了社会、历史和文化价值的倾向性。 ● 人类(当然,包括作者)的一切行为都是在与其他社会成员的交流互动中进行的。 ● 虽然写作行为本身是由作者本人来执行的,写作行为却总是要求读者的存在和参与,哪怕是写最隐私的日记(因为在写日记时,你会有意无意地把自己客体化为另外一个人,与其对话,向其倾诉衷肠)。读者可以是具体明确的个人(某位朋友、公司经理、学校教师等)、群体(某报的读者、全厂的职工等),也可以是设想和想象出来的个人或群体。可以说,没有读者,就没有写作。 如果是用某门外语来写作或所拟定的读者是外国人,那你的写作行为就不仅是社会的,而且是跨文化的,你的修辞环境(rhetorical context)就涉及到更复杂的社会和文化因素,不管你的题目是教师布置的、公司老板交代的,还是自选的。对于写作行为的社会性的充分认识将对把握写作的全过程产生十分重要和积极的影响作用。正如我们在前面所讨论的,写作是一个用语言来创造意义,并向读者传达这个意义的行为,是一个迂回复杂、动态的过程,受到各种认知和社会因素的制约。那么这个过程究竟是怎么发展的呢? 写作的修辞环境又包括哪些最基本的因素呢?这就是本节所要讨论的题目。 1.修辞环境就写作而言,修辞环境由下面3个基本成分构成: 题目读者 (写作)目的及(作者的)角色 用图表示,它们就呈一个相互作用、制约的三角关系: [img]http://images.blogcn.com/2006/9/9/8/writingybu,20060909143613.png[/img] a. 题目 (Title) 文章的题目就是你所要写的究竟是关于什么方面的内容: 上个星期六和几个朋友的一次郊游学生餐厅饭菜的质量和价格城里新设立的取款机新建小区高楼大厦里住户之间的关系高学位女子找对象难收费制度改革后贫困地区考生上大学中小学家庭作业负担灌输知识与培养创造和动手能力语文教学的目的和方法独生子女与未来社会家庭结构人民币与外汇的汇率浮动外国银行在中国的业务农产品价格的保护与开放 我们可以把单子无休止地开下去,所有这一切都可以成为文章的题目。题目可以是他人(教师、经理、报社编辑等)布置或指定的,也可以是作者自选的。没有题目,当然做不了文章,即使那些所谓“无题”的文章也是有题目的,只是作者因种种原因(或故意卖关子、或为了能任意挥洒)没有宣布而已。 b. 读者在修辞环境的3个基本成分中,读者具有相当重要的位置。为什么? 譬如说,这是大学生活开始的第一周,兴奋、激动、紧张之余,你有很多感受和想法。如果把这些感受和想法写给故乡的朋友、教师或家里的亲人,你会怎么写呢?如果你想壮着胆子给还没有谋过面的大学校长写信,又会怎么写呢?再如果是给报社、杂志或广播电台写呢?你只要拿起笔来试一试,就会发现即使是同样的题目,写给不同的读者对象,就会对内容、结构、风格和口气等各个方面产生明显的影响。因而,应该十分强调在写作过程中对读者因素的意识和敏感,很多情况下还有必要坐下来对所拟定或设想的读者认真分析,以期用最有效的方式和手段达到写作的目的。 分析读者因素可以从下列3个方面进行: 你(作者)与读者的社会关系读者对题目熟悉和了解程度读者对题目以及你(作者)所要阐述的论点的态度和立场 ● 作者与读者的社会关系每当你拿起笔来写东西时,都是在与社会的其他成员进行交流互动。你的读者是一起玩耍长大的朋友?某中外合资企业人事部主任?美国某大学研究生导师?向你的公司抱怨产品质量的客户?晚报的读者?所有这些或其他什么人,作为读者,都与你有特定的社会关系,这种关系的性质都会对你写作的内容、结构、风格及口气等产生重要影响。任何一位心智健全、稍有些常识的人薄雾浓云愁永昼大概都不会用给老朋友、老熟人的口气给人事部的主任写谋职申请信或给研究生院院长写信要求被录取或获得奖学金的吧,不然,就太冒昧唐突了。反过来,用给董事长写信的格调语气给老朋友写信,难免有一种做作或距离感,让人怀疑你们究竟是不是好朋友(你如果是故作幽默,又另当别论)。有些内容用某种方式写给与你具有某种社会关系的读者是合适的,写给另一位或另一类读者就不得体了。有些写作手段对与你具有某种社会关系的读者是有效的,对其他读者就毫无效果了。总之,对作者与读者的关系——亲、疏、上、下、远、近、买、卖、主、客等——的清醒意识,对于把握文体、内容、结构,甚至称呼等方面的得体和尺度,都有积极的意义。 ● 读者对题目熟悉和了解程度对读者的这种分析,在写说明文、解释文和争论文时尤其重要。 举一个最简单的例子,你应邀参加一个由本校留学生部组织的百乐餐(potluck dinner),你带去的自己包的饺子备受青睐,法莫道不消魂国留学生黛丽小姐向你索取菜谱。盛情难却,你回来后想了一下自己做饺子的过程,写了几行,下次见面时给了她。黛丽如法炮制,能做出同样可口的饺子来吗?她的成功与否与很多因素有关,其中最重要的一点,就是你的菜谱写得好坏,而菜谱写得好坏在很大程度上又取决于你在写菜谱时,是否考虑了黛丽或她这样 的洋小姐对饺子以及中国饭菜的熟悉了解程度。这是她第一次吃中国的饺子,还是她以前有过多次经验?她知道“剁馅”、“擀皮”,这些在你看来简单得不能再简单,可却又有着可能令她摸不着头脑的术语。你与中国文化(包括食文化)是生于斯、长于斯的关系,一切在你看上去是那么的自然,可是对于来自另外一个文化背景国家的人看来,一切又很可能是相当复杂难懂的。 再举一个例子。要想写一篇有关情人节在中国活动情况的文章,预先设定的读者对象是某家晚报的千千万万个读者。那么,你设定的读者对情人节这个来自西方的传统节日了解多少呢?要不要对该节日的历史起因、发展、文化内涵、庆祝方式及其传入中国等做简要介绍呢?该介绍到什么程度呢?最后的决定当然要根据题目、读者和写作目的等修辞环境三要素之三角关系来确定。作为作者,考虑到这一点是十分重要的。如果读者对情人节的背景已略知一二,再想从你的文章得到一些新东西,而你却偏偏把宝贵而有限的篇幅用在背景介绍上,那不是存心要和读者过不去吗? 实际上,即使所写的是说服性、争论性文章,也要考虑到读者对题目的背景、基本内容等的了解程度(参见下一节)。怎样来考虑分析读者对题目的熟悉和了解程度,使文章写得具有针对性呢?如果读者是具体明确的,如你的老师、朋友和研究生院院长等,可以根据具体情况确定他(她)对题目的了解程度。如果是一个模糊的群体,如某报刊杂志的读者、某个国度或文化圈里的人士等,可以根据该群体的一般特性、知识程度和兴趣等作出基本的判断。譬如,一般的欧美读者对中国的风土人情、文化历史和现代社会经济的发展等可以说所知甚微,而中国内地和欠发达地区的许多读者对如何与外商谈判、如何经营合资企业、把握法律、管理、产品等各个环节就不一定很有经验,对这些不同读者写有关题目的文章时,可以从一般或典型读者对该题目的了解程度出发。不过,在做这种笼统的、概念性的预测时要提醒自己,任何群体中都会有不符合该群体一般特性的例外。如果你正在给一群外国游客上一堂关于中秋节的专题介绍,意外发现听众当中有一位是中国通、对中国传统文化及民俗颇有研究,甚至比你知道得还要多,不必太过于吃惊。同样,如果你发现有一位来自西部某边远地区的读者看了你关于如何经营合资企业的高论不以为然,也别太往心里去了,那人也许是拥有上千万元股份资产的合资企业的董事长什么的呢。背景知识到底该介绍多少,当然得根据修辞环境之三角关系来确定。过少了不解馋,过多了太腻烦了。譬如你写一篇比较中国的中秋节和美国感恩节的文章,如果你觉得所拟定的读者对两个节日都有个大致了解,就应该把重点放在揭示这两个节日所包含的文化异同上,这种差异和相同性可能是明显的,也可能是微妙的。这样的文章要比花大量篇幅重复读者已经十分熟悉的东西上更有读头多了。 ● 读者对题目以及作者论点的态度:这种分析对写说服性和争论性文章尤为重要,因为从某种意义上来说,说服性和争论性文章是所有文体中最具挑战性的,也就是说,是最难写的。。一般来说,这类文章的题目都是有争议的,文章的目的是要让读者接受作者的观点和立场,或者说服读者就某件事采取什么态度或具体行动。要达到目的,谈何容易?这种文章的读者大致可以分为以下3类: 同意的读者中立或犹豫不决的读者持反对态度或反对立场的读者 ● 同意的读者如果你要就某一具有争议性的题目写一篇文章、预先已经知道你的读者(或听众)与你的观点大致相同,还有写文章的必要吗?从逻辑上严格来说,根本没有必要了,因为就你和你的读者来说,所要写的题目是不具争议性的,你们已经是“英雄所见略同了”。譬如,你要写一篇中美两国应建立成熟、稳定和健康,具有建设性的关系的文章或演讲,你知道读者(譬如美中友好协会的成员)已经在原则上同意你的观点,还有必要为此而绞尽脑汁、浪费笔墨吗? 不过,在实践中,经常还是有必要做这样的文章的。首先,对于那些已经基本同意你的观点的读者(听众)来说,有时也有必要把你所持的立场及其为什么是正确的理由再阐述一遍,使读者对题目的认识更加清楚。譬如前面提到的中美关系应如何发展的题目,即使读者或听众已经基本认同作者的观点,重复基本的立场及支撑这个立场的情理不仅有利于加深认识,在某种意义上,还有坚定信念和鼓舞信心的效果,因为在美国,的确是有一些人不愿意看到中美关系的改善,在这样的环境中,要为中美关系的改善努力,阻力不小,有时是十分艰难的。所以,这种带有鼓舞士气的文章还是有必要做的。再者,这样的文章常常又是为“场外”的读者或听众而做的,尤其是事关重大的题目,一经媒体报道,所阐述的观点也就传播到其他两类读者或听众(不同意和犹豫不决)那里去了。再举一个例子,美国总统大选年(如2000年)中,民瑞脑消金兽主党和共和党都要举行代表大会,以推举确定代表本党的候选人,在大会上参加本党候选人竞选及其他重要人物都要登场做一番演讲,虽然演讲者与到会的代表们之间对某些具体问题所持的观点会有某些分歧,但在很多大的原则问题上的立场和看法相差不会太远。所以,演讲者上台鼓噪一番,自然是要重复不知道重复了多少遍的老调,其目的无非是让听众们激昂一番,回去后好为他们的选战拉些票,最后赢得白宫。不过,这种代表大会的实际参加者远不止到会的人,远不止已经同意了民瑞脑消金兽主党或共和党纲领的人们,它还包括电视屏幕前那些千千万万个持不同或观望态度的潜在的选民(美国那些庞大的广播电视网络一般总是要现场直播这样的代表大会的)。凡觉得自己真有希望被选为本党候选人,并有望在年底的大选中获胜的代表在准备讲稿时,心里装着的真正的听众很可能是没有到场的那些不知该投谁票的百姓(美国百姓的党派和政治倾向性,一般不出下面这个比例:1/3的人是死心塌地的民瑞脑消金兽主党,1/3是至死不渝的共和党,1/3是说不准、见机行事、犹豫不定的中间、逍遥或独立派,这些人如何投票将真正决定谁最终入主白宫),盘算着如何就他们所最关心的事情发一番他们最愿意听的高论或许愿,以赢得他们的心和票,所谓醉翁之意不在酒。 ● 中立或犹豫不决的读者可以说这类读者是最有潜力、在他们身上下工夫是最值得的,因为他们具有“可塑性”,是有可能最终赢得他们的同情和支持的。譬如说,你的题目是贫困地区大学生学费问题,你担心目前新实施的大学收费体制会使不少很有才华和造就前景的年轻人因无力支付学费而被拒之高等学府的大门之外,你想提议建立一种对这类学生提供资助的政策和实施方法。什么样的读者(和听众)会对这个建议持中立或犹豫不决的态度呢?他们为什么会持这种态度呢?是担心所需要的资金该从哪里来?是吃不准资金该来自政府财政还是社会捐赠?还有其他一系列问题:该用什么样的标准(收入或贫困程度)来确定什么样的学生该享受这种资助?由什么样的机构、组织或委员会来管理、发放这类资助?这种资助对其他不拿资助的学生是否公平?是否会对新建立的收费体制产生负面影响? 在写文章的过程中认真考虑这些因素,并在文章中对这些问题作出充分的解释和阐述,就有可能赢得原来吃不准的读者的支持。分析读者是为了最终能够以最有效的方式达到预定的写作目的。 ● 持反对态度或反对立场的读者祝你走好运!因为他们是最难对付的读者、要想让他们改变观点和立场是最难的。形形色色的读者不同意你的观点的原因会是五花八门。有些人对题目已经深思熟虑、做出了明确的选择,对于这类读者,要改变他们的立场观点几乎是不可能的,大概得等发生奇迹吧。有些人不同意,很可能是因为还没有来得及认真考虑过,只是对问题做出本能的反应罢了。总的来说,读者不同意或持反对观点不外乎下列两个原因:其一,他们对涉及题目的基本“事实”不了解或对同样的基本“事实”做出不同的解读。譬如,很多美国人对中国的独生子女政策持反对态度,一个重要原因就是他们对中国的国情(文化传统、经济发展、生态环境以及人口与发展之间的复杂关系等)很不了解,他们只是从美国人的角度来看这个问题,觉得用法规来限定每个家庭可以生几个孩子是多么的不可思议。对于这样的读者,提供具体详实的有关事实就很具说服力。也许最终他们不会完全改变自己的态度,但有可能在这些事实的说服下从更全面的角度来看问题,对中国的这个政策有一定程度的理解。其二,他们的态度和立场是受自己政治、文化和宗教等价值观决定的。对于这类读者,要改变他们的态度和立场,希望是很渺茫的,因为他们的价值取向不是一日一时所形成的,而是常年累月、日积月累,可以说是根深蒂固,要改变他们对某一具体问题——譬如,对中国独生子女政策——.的看法,无异于要改变他们整个价值体系。如果你期望自己的一篇文章就能打动他们,产生惊人的效果,恐怕太过于天真或过高估计自己了吧!。美国许多人反对中国独生子女政策是出于他们的宗教信仰,尤其是信奉天主教的教徒,他们认为,节育是违背天意,堕胎是罪孽深重,因为生命和灵魂是从受孕的那一瞬间就开始了,堕胎无异于谋害一条生命。在美国,有关这个问题的争论分为两大阵营,所谓“生命权派”(pro-life)和“选择权派”(pro-choice)相争了几十年,还搭上了不少人命(“生命权派”的极端分子曾暗东篱把酒黄昏后杀或炸死过医生、护佳节又重阳士和其他无辜人士),至今谁也说服不了谁,就是一个最典型的例子。在中国,对于改革开放,肯定也有些人,出于自己的政治观念等因素持否定态度,要想改变他们的态度和立场,也是很困难的。当然,这不等于说就放弃为这类读者写争论文章了,至少可以让对方明确知道分歧所在。奇迹有时也会出现的。 通过分析,了解读者持不同或相反意见的原因所在,有利于作者寻找确定有可能说服读者的最有效的方式。如果读者是因为对有关题目的背景或具体内容细节不了解而持否定态度,那就在文章中精确地提供有关资料和解释;如果是因为读者的政治、宗教、文化或其他根深蒂固的原因,你应该尊重他们的价值观的选择,理解他们,心平气和地指出分歧的所在,而不是肆意攻击和诋毁,因为有关政治、宗教和文化价值的取向在很大程度或者在根本上决定了一个人的属性,攻击和诋毁只能适得其反,达不到写争论文章的最终目的:说服或改变别人。对于读者的敏感、考虑和分析——不管所写的是什么文体,说明文、解释文或争论文,对于写作的成功是很关键的。在写作过程中,时常要对这3个方面——作者与读者的社会关系、读者对题目的了解程度、对有关题目的态度和立场等方面——都要考虑和分析,以寻找和确定诉诸读者的最佳内容、结构和风格等。还有一个可能:在了解分析读者以及就题目做有关调查研究过程中,发现与你观点不同的读者在某些方面持之有理,你得适当调整自己的观点,这也无不可。即使最终发现别人是对的,自己是错的,.需要完全改变自己的观点,那又怎么样?在某种意义上,写作的过程既是认识和发现真理的过程,也是重新认识和发现自我的过程,这里是需要勇气和诚实的。 c. 目的与角色只要拿起笔来写东西,不管你清醒地意识或认识到与否,都是为达到某种目的或效果,都是在扮演某种角色。如果你刚到一所大学学习,置身于生疏的新环境时,在学业、社会、心理以及生活上遇到小少新的问题和挑战。你给朋友写信谈这些问题,是为了寻找安慰和理解?为了与过去、熟悉的世界保持联系?为了寻求一个风平浪静的港湾?如果你是就同样的问题给学校的校长写信,目的就很可能是不一样了,很可能是希望看到具体问题——宿舍、伙食、医疗、注 册、交通等——得到注意和改善,有具体的物质性的结果。当然,也完全可以写有关新生心理状况方面的问题,希望引起校方注意,得到有关方面的咨询和帮助。如果是给外国留学生写如何做饺子的菜谱,目的是向读者传授制作饺子的具体方法,使他们能够成功地如法炮制。如果是就某一个具有争议性的问题写文章——中国经济改革的步伐是太快了还是太慢了?如何评价进口好莱坞“大片”对中国文化所造成的影响等,你的目的就是要说服读者,或改变读者的看法等。不管是为了提供信息、解释观念、分析问题、提出建议还是为了说服读者,写作是有目的性的。而在写作过程中对于目的性的明确意识,对于整个文章从内容、结构到风格的构思和修改,都有重要的意义。至于角色,任何一个作者在任何一篇文章中都扮演某种角色,也就是说你想让读者把你看成是什么样的人。总的来说,你当然是想让读者觉得你知识丰富(至少对所写的题目很熟悉)和思路敏捷等。如果读者认为你孤陋寡闻、不知所云,那他们何必在你这里浪费时间呢?当然,在不同的文章里你扮演不同的角色:给外国留学生写如何制作饺子的菜谱,你的角色就是饺子专家(或厨师);写关于来自困难地区大学生的资助问题,根据具体情况,你的角色可能是一个普通大学生(尤其是来自贫困地区的大学生)、大学教师、专管学生工作的学校干部或普通社会成员;如果我们写一篇给美国读者看的有关中美关系的文章,那么,我们所扮演的角色就是来自中国的学者;而如果作者就写作理论和教学或文学问题写文章,所扮演的就是另一种角色了。当然,这种角色是由许多不可改变的社会、历史和文化因素以及具体的修辞环境所决定的(所以,这里所说的扮演角色不等于“冒充。”)。在文章中扮演角色还涉及读者怎么看你:是否值得信赖?严肃认真?知识渊博?风趣幽默?带有喜剧色彩?过于俏皮?过于偏激?感情强烈?富于哲理?愤世嫉俗?这些都是在考虑之内的东西,因为同一个题目,你可以写得庄重严肃得像某个大报的编辑部文章或社论,也可以在嬉笑怒骂、插科打诨中传达要旨。在这个意义上,写文章就像是在作戏,作者即是导演、制作人,又要在其中扮演角色。由题目、读者、目的及角色这3个基本成分构成的修辞环境的重要性,可以说怎么强调也不过分。它们互相制约、互动,影响着写作的全过程。 2. 写作五部曲每次提起笔准备写文章时,是否像本章开首所勾勒出的诗人那种灵感进发、挥笔写意、洋洋洒洒,还是两眼盯着稿纸或电脑屏幕发愣?不管怎样,如果你不是前者,而是后者,或者两者兼而有之,但后者居多(根据具体修辞环境而定),大可不必绝望或气馁,因为世界上绝大多数的人写起东西来,处境与你大致相似。能够一挥而就、一气呵成的,毕竟是凤毛麟角。而在这些“天才”作家中,肯定有为了鼓励后人而编撰扩大了的神话成分,也难免有个别人士为抬高自我的自吹自擂。即使那些真正的大手笔,多数情况下也是腹稿在胸,反复推敲、琢磨过了多少回,临场发挥时,才给人以挥洒自如、不费吹灰之力的感觉。对于绝大多数人来说,写作是一个过程,一个艰苦、复杂(但又充满乐趣)的过程。这个过程通常包括以下5个阶段或步骤: • 创造(1nventing). • 构思(PlanningandOrganizing) • 起稿(Drafting) • 修改(Revising) • 校读(EditingandProofreading) a. 创造创造?我们该不是在谈论拥有2000多项发明的托马斯•爱迪生吧?该不是讨论如何设计能万无一失地进行心脏或脑手术的新一代机器人或集数字电视、电脑和游戏机于一身的微型便携式高科技玩艺吧?再不就是克隆什么新品种的奶牛、山羊和熊猫?都不是。我们是在谈论写作。用“创造”这个词来描述写作过程的第一阶段或步骤,是很恰当的,因为在迈出这一步之前,在我们面前摆着的纸张或者电脑屏幕都还是一片空白,而写作的过程就是一个发现和认识的过程,也就是创造的过程。具体地说,在创造阶段,作者的任务就是就题目(自选的或指定的)进行探索,了解和发现自己对题目所知有多少,是什么感觉、态度和立场,了解别人(或别的作者)对该题目的观点和立场,琢磨考虑要在文章中说些什么?从某种意义,可以说作者是从“零”开始,对题目的各个方面进行初步了解,产生很多素材,称之为“创造”,不为过分。创造阶段的一切活动都是探索性的,即使所用的手段或技巧是很系统的。在这个阶段,你所关注的不是要立刻写出观点明确、结构严谨、词句流畅的绝妙文章,而是使自己放松,对与题目有关的各个方面进行探索和发现,并产生与之有关或有用的素材。因而,如果显得有些盲目和杂乱无章,也是很自然的。当然,如果你的写作题目、对象和目的等(所谓修辞环境)很明确,创造活动就会进行得更有条理、更系统些,因为你知道该去找什么、发现什么、到哪里去找去发现。创造活动在具体文章的写作过程中究竟如何发展要根据具体的修辞环境而定。在进行创造活动时,可以采用各种不同的手段或技巧:自由写作(Free Writing)、激发思维(Brainstorming)、树枝分杈(Branching)、魔方六边(Cubing)、五个W(Journalistic formula)及调查研究(Research)等。虽然通常把写作过程的第一阶段看成是创造的阶段,创造活动可以持续在写作的全过程。 b. 构思一系列的创造活动产生了大量的素材,接着就进入了写作的第二个阶段:构思。这一阶段的主要任务就是整理素材和勾画文章。首先是整理创造阶段所产生的素材,从中发现哪些东西可能有用,哪些东西可以成为文章的题目或与已确定的题目直接有关,特别要注意发现有意义、新颖、独到和闪光的东西。然后是确定文章的主旨及写作的目的:为了说明什么?解释什么?建议什么?分析什么?纠正某种偏见或误解?向某种观点商榷或挑战?可以说,这时就像一个建筑师,在设计和确定该建造什么样的楼、采用什么风格等。接下来就是确定更具体的东西:文章该怎么个组织,该包括哪些内容,怎么开首,中间怎么发展,怎么结尾。使用什么例子、掌故、引语、数据和逻辑分析等。这就像是拿出一个具体的建筑图纸一样。许多作者在这个时候确定写作提纲,提纲的粗细程度要根据具体情况而定。这是一个很重要的步骤,是对整篇文章构思的蓝图。不过,这个蓝图并不是刻在石碑上的,,而是可以在写作过程中根据具体情况不断进行修改的。 c. 起稿起稿,顾名思义,就是根据提纲开始写文章的初稿。在这一阶段,主要任务是先搭起框架,看是否符合原先设想,基础是否牢固,而不要一气呵成一篇千古绝唱来。所以,不要持过于挑剔的态度,不要过于注意遣词造句、语法标点等。即使稿子显得有些散乱,也没有什么了不得的,尤其不要停下来为某一个具体的词句反复推敲,花去大量的时间,而影响整个写作过程。原因很简单:刚开始搭架子,难免还带有某些试探性,在这个阶段为具体的词句推敲半个多小时,也许那词句是尽善尽美了,可是,如果在修改阶段发现词句虽好,却与所在的整个段落或整个文章的主旨或风格并不相容,只好忍痛删掉,岂不是白费了先前的苦思冥想、反复推敲了吗?再说,即使对某个段落或词句不甚满意,还可以在以后的修改或润色阶段来解决问题。这一点,特别是对使用外语写作的人,尤为重要,因为不管对某外语的掌握程度有多好,毕竟还是外语,在使用、搭配、地道、拼写等方面总会遇到这样或那样的疑问,一般来说,在起草阶段,不必过于苛求,原因是显而易见的。 d. 修改即使是制定出最佳的蓝图、提纲或方案,起草过程也没有发生什么问题,也还是需要进行修改。更何况如果发现起草出来的文稿与原定提纲相去甚远,就更有修改的必要了。实际上,绝大多数的作家,包括一些世界著名的大作家,只要研究一下他们那一次次的修改稿,就会发现他(她)们为使文章(或书)达到更高的境界,或者说与写作的题目、读者和目的更加吻合,付出了巨大的艰辛和心血。有一点要特别强调的是:修改不等于是或不同于是校读。简单地说,修改有两个不同层次:宏观修改和微观修改。宏观修改所涉及的是通篇内容和结构,微观修改所涉及的是段落和遣词造句。而校读则属于写作过程的下一阶段,也就是最后一道工序。这之间的区‘别十分重要,因为很多人对于修改的观念很模糊,以为只要校读几遍,纠正词语和标点符号方面的差错,便万事大吉了。这样的“修改”也许可以使文章在某些细节问题(词语、标点)上无可挑剔,可是,却可能遗留下了很大的结构性问题。就像新建的房子,不管装修、装潢得有多么高雅或漂亮,如果存在结构性问题,就不能说是一个成功的建筑范例。在某种意义上来说,修改也是一个再认识、再发现和再创造的过程。怎样才能有效地修改文章呢?修改的基本依据是什么呢?当然是该文章的具体修辞环境(题目、读者和目的)。 e. 校读这是写作过程的最后一个步骤。一篇文章立论再新、内容再好,可在字、词、句、语法、标点等各个方面都不乏错误,也不能算是成功的。不管这些似乎微不足道的瑕疵是粗心还是概念模糊所造成的,都会对文章的质量产生负面影响,给读者留下不良的印象,至少会影响作者的可信程度,不利于达到写文章的最终目的。这就是在完稿之前要反复校读的原因所在。 f. 写作过程:直线发展还是循环反复写作的过程是否总是沿着刚才所描述的创造、构思、起稿、修改、校读过程直线向前发展呢?回答是否定的。实际上,很多情况下,写作是一个曲线型的、循环反复的发展过程。譬如说,当你正处于写作的起稿阶段时,发现有关题目的一个重要方面需要重新调查研究,获得有关资料,才能继续下去,这时,你搁下笔,退回到写作过程的第一阶段,再进行一些创造活动,又有何妨?在走完了五步过程后,以为大功告成,可是不久,自己(或经别人的指点、反馈等)发现某地方需要进行重大修改——如把结尾的段落移作开首,增删某些内容等,甚至重新考虑全文的立论,也是常有的事。所以,上面简要介绍的写作五部曲只是提供一个基本的模式,但这个模式不是僵硬的、一成不变的,而是具有弹性的、动态的、视具体情况而发展变化的。写作是一个没有完结、没有终端的过程。即使在文章发表、书籍出版以后,还会发现值得修改的地方。写作过程犹如是在一座人迹罕至的荒山野岭跋涉、攀登,三弯九转,逶迤而行,正当你“山穷水尽疑无路”时,却突然发现“柳岸花明又一村”,登上了一个新的高处,可以从一个崭新的角度纵览令人心花怒放的美丽景致。写作是一个很费脑筋、极其复杂的思维活动过程,只有运用得法,才会得到无限丰厚的回报。

写作教学的若干基本观念

3. Several Concepts of Writing Teaching(写作教学的若干基本观念)

本节主要讨论几个与写作教学有关的基本概念,它们与上一节讨论的写作教学模式有着内在的联系,在某种意义上来说,是对它们的进一步补充、解释或扩展。

a. Why do students learn to write? (为什么要写)
有人或许会问:学生为什么要学习写作?一种口号是学生需要学习写作(1earning to write),另一种口号是学生需要“通过写作来学习”(writing to learn)。对许多教师来说,后者已经取代了前者,他们认为学生思维能力的发展与他们在写作过程中努力发现意义有着直接的关系,也就是说,写作是一个自我发现、自我认识、发现和认识周围世界的过程。不过,在西方的传统教学中,关于写作,一直存在着争论不休的问题。

 雄辩与智慧(Eloquence and Wisdom):
古希腊时代的苏格拉底攻击写作是一种虚假的艺术,其目的是通过雄辩(eloquence)来说服读者、相信某一预先确立了的立场、观点,因而是对读者的操纵、是不诚实的。他担心如果让年轻入学了这门虚假的艺术,他们就不会扎扎实实地去追求真理了。他所实践的是一种面对面的对话,谈话者互相提问、回答,寻求某种超然的真理或自我认知的智慧(wisdom)。柏拉图的学生亚里士多德熟知苏格拉底对于写作的这种发难。他提出可以用写作的艺术,包括那些雄辩和说服读者的手段,来发现认知或自己所应该并能接受的认知。他认为,要想教育人们识别诡辩者所贩卖的谎言,就必须让他们熟悉语言所具有的说服的能量和使用这些能量的技巧。亚氏还认为,真理并非都是永恒绝对的,实际上很多真理是相对、有条件(contingent)和盖然的(probable)。
由此可见,关于写作教学,不仅有一个技巧的问题,更重要的是通过写作要达到什么目的的问题:发现、认识自我和周围的世界,认识超然或具体的真理,为明确具体的社会目的服务。

 技能与思考(Skills and Thinking):
写作到底是个技能还是个思维的过程,在西方也往往有分歧,直接影响到教学实践。虽然在当今的西方,几乎没有人认为写作只是个技能,但在许多人的教学实践中,还是把写作作为一个技能来传授。上面提到的某些教学方法或模式就是这么做的,好像只当作学生学会如何安排组织每一个段落(每一段落包含3个细节)、把段落衔接起来、搭成基本的结构(譬如五段式)、句法通顺,就算是达到写作课的目的了,这种教学的结果,恐怕连苏格拉底所批评的那种空洞的雄辩也谈不上了。这类强调技能以及产品的教学方法随着程序法的挑战而失去了公开的市场。程序教学法强调把写作分为几个阶段,包括如何选择研究题目、收集信息、组织思想、修改内容和结构等,比之机械的练习更有益于学生发展自己的思考和认知能力。但是,有些与思想内容有关的东西,包括对社会问题的强烈关注和责任感、是非感、敏锐和洞察力等,并不是都能教授的,至少写作课单独是不能承担这么重大的责任的。因而,具体到教学,就有如何把技能作为认知手段的问题,也就是把学习技能与提高思维和认知能力有机地统一起来。至少,在布置作文时,应该尽量避免那种虚假的、无病呻吟、千人一面、官腔十足的题目,鼓励学生探索、思考和分析实际生活中的实实在在的问题、并在此基础上得出自己的结论,用有效的形式和语言来表达自己对事物和问题的感悟与认知。

 实用与责任(Utility and Responsibility):
与前面讨论的两个题目紧密相连的是实用与责任的关系问题。诚然,学生通过写作课习得写作的技能(如果教学是成功的话),目的是什么呢?有很好的写作能力,在学校的时候,可以使你获得好的成绩;就业以后,可以使你更好地工作、更受重用,甚至增加被提拔的机会(美国的企业在录用或提拔职员、特别是管理层次的人员时,特别重视所谓的communication skills——交流能力,其中写作能力占很重要的分量);在社会生活中,可以使你作为一个公民更有效地参与民瑞脑消金兽主和治理社会的程序。然而,同样的写作技能也可以用来达到并不高尚甚至是不合法的目的。这里就有一个责任的问题,也就是如何区别好与坏、善与恶、正义与非正义的问题。
除了技能和前面提到的独立思考能力外,写作课是否应该训练学生如何鉴别真、善、美与假、恶、丑?真、善、美的标准是什么?这些标准是既定、永恒、放之四海而皆准的?还是相对、有条件、盖然的?哪些标准是属于前者?哪些属于后者?谁拥有确立、解释这些标准的权威?具体到学生的文章上,说一篇文章好,除了技术和形式上的标准以外,该用什么标准来衡量它的思想内容?这些都是一个写作教育者应该考虑的。
作者以为,如果一个写作者能认真、真切地面对一个来自于真实生活的实际问题,通过把问题放到真实的社会环境里探索、思考,得出自己的感悟和认识,这个感悟具有某种程度的独到之处,就应该说是有思想内容了。最忌讳的该是那种无病呻吟、人云亦云、教条俗套 的“官样”文章。
实用与责任是两个层次上的问题。作为学生,既有学习技能又有如何以负责任的态度来使用技能的问题;作为教育者,既要教学生掌握写作的技能,又要帮助他们提高思考问题的能力,以社会责任感来使用所学的技能。

 陈述性知识与程序性知识(Declarative Knowledge and Procedural Knowledge):
写作者在写作时,把什么样的知识带入这个行为和过程呢?美国一些学者把涉及写作行为的知识分为两大类:实质性知识(substantive knowledge)和形式知识(formal knowledge)。实质性知识包括具体的事实、数据、材料、观点和信念等;形式知识包括用来表达实质性知识的言语交流的形式、结构、句型、语法和词汇等方面的知识。认知心理学(cognitive psychology)则把知识分为陈述性(declarative)知识和程序性(procedural)知识。前者涉及内容(what,是什么),它让我们能够识别现象和回忆存储在记忆中的信息;后者涉及实施(how,怎么做),它构成产生、改变并用具体例子说明陈述性知识的能力。如果把上面对知识的两种分类方法综合起来,用来描述写作行为所涉及的知识就可以得出下面四大类:

陈述性实质知识(declarative knowledge of substance):
作为具体写作之基础的全部知识或素材——包括事实、数据、形象、观点、观念等,可以进一步分为与人生经历有关的知识或常识和与具体题目有关的专门性的知识。
程序性实质知识(procedural knowledge of substance):
与实质内容有关的程序性知识,它使你能够回忆、组织安排或推断那些实质内容。在高一层次,这种程序知识包括进行分类、归纳、评估等方法或具体手段。
以给概念下定义为例。
通常的方法是
1)把具体概念归入某类;
2)用具体事例来说明概念;
3)说明概念必须符合的若干标准,以此将之与其他相似但不同的概念相区别。
譬如,亚里士多德把“勇气”(courage)定义为与害怕的感觉和信心有关的某种品质。他规定了若干把真正的勇气与似是而非的勇气的品质相区别的标准:
1)当事人必须知道所面临的危险并有理由感到害怕;
2)所采取的行动必须是出于高尚的动机;
3)所采取的行动必须是当事人自由选择而不是被迫的。

用这3个标准来衡量下列两个假设情景:
1)某士兵在预先不知道的情况下误入敌人的阵地;
2)在激战中某士兵勃然大怒,跃出战壕、向敌人冲去,用手雷把敌人的机枪炸毁。

这两个士兵的行为是“勇敢”的吗?为什么?如何归类、提供说明事例、用标准来界定概念的内涵和外延等,就属于程序性实质知识。

陈述性形式知识(declarative knowledge of form):
这一知识包括能够识别不同形式结构、构成整体的各个部分、这些部分、成分之间的关系以及语法和句型种类结构等。传统的写作教育常把这种知识作为教学的中心。教语法的教师让学生分析、鉴别句子成分,写作教材或手册把写作分为若干文体或9—10种结构方法,再以范文说明、让学生模仿。研究表明,语法训练并不能提高写作的质量(没有语法错误不等于好文章),而使用范文却有明显的正面效果。范文教育为什么会有提高写作质量和效果?范文的结构或文体形式有没有什么心理学基础或依据?譬如,一篇文本(text)必须具备什么样的成分才能称其为“故事”(story)呢?人物、环境、事件、感情反应和冲突?研究表明,这些成分越丰富,读者就会觉得故事越好。学生掌握这些基本成分的知识,既有助于阅读、理解和欣赏故事,也有助于提高写叙事体文章的能力。对于其他的文体,效果应该是同样的。

程序性形式知识(procedural knowledge of form):
产生具体不同形式的实际能力。在日常生活中常有这样现象,有些人可以说得头头是道、显得满腹经纶,却动不了手,一动手就砸锅;能说出一把小提琴各个部分的名称和功用,却不能用小提琴演奏出悦耳动听的旋律;能把别人的小说、诗歌分析评论得透透彻彻,自己却写不出像样的小说和诗歌来。这就是只有陈述性(实质和形式)知识而缺乏程序性(形式)知识的表现。当然相反,如果能做得一手绝活,却说不出一个道道来,同样也是不行的。前者是只有理论,缺乏实践;而后者却只有实践,没有理论。
由此可见,两者缺一都是不行的,都是缺一条腿,是走不好路的。

这4种知识在实践中真的是如此重要,而不可分割吗?他们之间是什么关系(譬如实质知识与形式知识之间?程序性知识与陈述性知识?)、是如何相互作用的?在教学实践中如何帮助学生提高上述不同的知识?也许这种分类并不完全科学或准确,但它为我们研究写作行为、组织安排教学提供了某种有意义的参照。

b. The Standard of Advanced Essay(优秀文章的标准)
当我们读完一篇优秀文章而拍案叫绝时,这是为了什么呢?是因为它的内容(言别人之所不见或所不敢言),或是因为它的形式(情趣、风格或绝妙好词),或两者兼而有之。那么,究竟什么是优秀文章呢?上面的讨论说明,不同的教学模式和方法侧重不同,对于什么是优秀文章的标准自然也会不尽相同。强调形式的教学模式一定把结构、段落、语法和句型的正确作为一个重要的标准,而强调发展个人风格和声音的模式,一定对那些富有个性特色的文章十分欣赏,虽然文章的某些段落和句子,甚至语言方面还显得稚嫩或有错误,再加上每一个写作教学者和读者都有自己的期望和趣味,因而,很难确定明确和统一的标准。基于上述讨论,我们可以把标准大致定在以下两个方面:

内容
形式

应该把内容和形式放到具体的写作与修辞环境(题目、读者和目的)中来考虑。譬如,不同的题目(一般性与专业性很强、有关国计民生与文学艺术、自然科学、日常生活、街道邻里等)、不同的读者对象(年龄、教育背景、社会地位、经济收入和语言文化等)、不同目的(提供信息、娱乐、说服、论辩等),都会对什么是优秀文章产生影响,更不用说大的社会文化环境(包括审美趣味的变化)了。在某种意义上来说,优秀文章的标准不是永恒不变、放之四海而皆准的,而是相对的、有条件的、处于变化之中的。在具体社会里,优秀的标准是由在社会中占主流和主导地位的群体依照自己的价值观来确定和解释的。在这个群体中,读者既是写作的对象,又是裁判,而学校里的教师、教授、各类评论家、报刊杂志的编审、出版社、各种写作比赛和评奖委员会则具有一个特殊而举足轻重的地位,他们既可以追随读者的兴趣和品味,又可以塑造、引导读者的兴趣和品味。

内容:从具体文章的修辞环境出发,可以评估文章对题目的处理:是否 彻底、扎实、有深度?这种处理——不管是描述、提供信息、解释,还是论辩——对读者的针对性是否强?是否达到了预期的目的和效果?从上面提到的智慧、思考和责任3个方面出发,可以评估文章对题目的认识是否深刻,是否有独到之处、文章对社会是否会产生积极的作用?还要考虑作者的具体写作环境(年龄、社会文化环境和教育背景等)。譬如,一个初中生对某一电影的评论,其认识是否深刻独到,评估的标准就不能与评估大学二年级学生的同类文章相同;而评估大学二年级学生的文章,其标准就又与评估一位专业电影评论作者的标准不一样。总的说来,内容是文章的实体,在评价文章时应该占据主导的地位。一篇文章如果很有见地,很有思想,很有独创精神,即使在表达形式上还不够完美,也应该首先肯定它存在的潜力,扶持它,帮助它解决形式上的问题,就有可能把它改造成为一篇好文章,相反,那种华而不实的东西是不值得我们去费更多笔墨的。
形式:形式可以从结构、风格和技术细节3个方面来考虑。结构的逻辑性和效果的强弱,包括开首、正文、结尾、各段落的发展和它们之间的衔接。风格(庄重、严肃、轻松、诙谐、繁缛和婉约等)、表达(清晰、朦胧和浑浊)与修辞环境的吻合(文章的趣味或可读性在很大程度上来自于此)。技术细节,包括标点符号、大小写和格式等。这3个方面的重要性依其结构、风格和技术细节的顺序递减。

简言之,优秀文章的标准涉及内容和形式两个层次,是动态的和相对的。

c. The Role of Teachers: Authority or Guide and Organizer?(教师的角色:是“权威”还是引导和组织者?)

要回答这个问题,就要对写作行为有一个认识。通过上面的讨论,我们可以把写作描述为一个过程,这个过程是迂回复杂的、动态的、受到各种认知和社会因素制约的,同时也因人、因具体写作和修辞环境而异;写作涉及各种(陈述性)知识和(程序性)技能;写作具有各种教育和社会功能。从教学角度来说,学生是学习的主体,写作课的目的是帮助他们提高发现、认识自我和周围世界、并有效地表达这种感悟和认识的能力,成为“学院或学术群体”(academic community)中的一员。那么,写作课的教师(或其他任何课程的教师)就不是无所不知的权威,而是扮演引导者和组织者的角色,采取一系列的教学手段,来达到写作课的教学目的。

***************************************************************************
4. The Ways of Writing(写作教学的手段)

从无所不知、满堂灌的“权威”变成引导和组织者,不是一个空洞的口号或政治姿态,而是要落实到具体的课程设置、组织、评估和反馈等手段上。下面对于不同写作教学手段的讨论提供读者参考。

a. 走近真实生活的课堂(Bringing the World into the Classroom)
写作课的阅读和讨论应该更多地贴近真实生活,即使是阅读经典范文,也应该鼓励学生把对生活的体验、观察和认识带入对范文的理解、体验和评判。学生可以喜欢范文或其他布置的阅读材料,也可以不喜欢它们,关键是要能为自己的感觉和评价提供充足的理由。
对于同一个问题,同一篇范文和材料,不应该预设结论,而是鼓励和允许不同的理解和观点。
譬如,近年来美国社会,特别是在教育界,强调要推动对美国社会diversity(“多元文化”)的认识,以利于不同种族、宗教、文化、语言,甚至于性别取向的人和谐相处。这一思潮必然要影响到不同层次学校的课程设置。不少高等学府大力推动开设少数民族文化、文学、妇女学研究和“非主流”文化研究等课程,五花八门,无所不有。美国社会,仁者见仁,智者见智,较保守的势力担心以盎格鲁一撒克逊人和基薄雾浓云愁永昼督教为主的“主流”文化受到冲击,削弱美国文明的核心的凝聚力。作者曾以这个来自真实生活的问题组织一个写作课的单元。作者让学生们研究本校课程的整个设置,按照自己制定的标准,找出哪些课程是为推动“多元文化”而设置的,然后再去调查这些课程开设的情况,包括学生注册率与效果如何等。据此,再确定自己的立场观点,写出自己的争论文章:向校方提出这类课程是该增加、减少,还是原封不动。学生的观点自然是形形色色,无所不有。

作者以为,写作课教师的职责是培养学生独立思考、并用有效的语言形式把自己的思想表达出来的能力,至于政治观点和价值观的取向,是学生自己的事,观点不同,又有何妨?这不正是一个真正的“多元文化”社会所应崇尚的吗?

作者曾经设计和实施过的另一个写作课单元与当今美国社会颇有争议的所谓Affirmative Action(“积极行动计划”)有关。这个计划开始于约翰逊总统执政的60年代,其目的不仅是为了广集天下之贤士,更是为了纠正多年来在就业和大学入学机会等方面对少数民族、尤其是黑人和妇女的歧视。按理说,这是一件好事,但因直接影响到受牵连人的利益,加上在具体实践中,有些政府机构、学校和公司明显降低标准,引来美国白人一片反对所谓reverse discrimination(“反向歧视”)的抗东篱把酒黄昏后议声。推行“积极行动计划”带来的另一个复杂问题就是少数民族之间的关系。亚裔也是少数民族,因众所周知的原因,亚裔子弟的学习成绩是出类拔萃的,甚至比白人子弟也要强上几分。这样,虽然亚裔占美国总人口仅仅2%左右,在哈佛、耶鲁、斯坦福这样的一些名牌大学,其子弟大都占近10%以上。为了摆平这个关系,让更多的黑人和讲西班牙语的拉丁美洲裔人有进名牌高等学府的机会,不少大学就提高亚裔,尤其是华裔子弟的入学标准。前些年,在加州就有华人社团为此事而上诉法庭的事。这确实是件很棘手的事,很难做到既纠正过去的偏差,又不造成新的感情伤痕和伤害他人、特别是白种男人的利益。就这个真实的问题,作者找到一个讨论此事的录像带,涉及3位教授能否获终身教职。其中一位教授是白种男人,一位是黑人男人,一位是白种女性。在校方所要求的教学、科研、社区服务等方面3位各有千秋,而当年的终身教职仅有一个名额。按美国大学通常的做法,得不到终身教职的教授一般在一年内就得另谋出路。作者要求学生在本单元中扮演终身教职评审委员会委员的角色。委以重任后,他们得根据录像带提供的具体资料,依据对美国社会的历史、现状、大学的使命和师生的构成等诸方面因素的调查,自己价值观的取向,写成文章,辩论哪位教授应得到他们的投票、荣幸成为终身教授。论文写好后就由抽签出来的5人组成评审委员会,在课堂上宣读论文,然后唇枪舌剑地论战一番,煞是有味道。作者作为教授,既不是谁胜谁负的裁判,也不是隔岸观火的局外人,而是在组织整个写作和讨论的过程中,就如何深入研究议题、如何设论、论证及谋篇上给以引导。至于那3位候选人中谁最后得到教职,对于这一课来说,是无关紧要的。
学生们通过这个单元的实践,既增加了对具体社会问题的了解、认识,逼着自己去面对真真实实、具有争议、涉及到自己切身利益的社会问题,并作出自己的选择,还要把这种认识和选择用有效的形式表达出来,以说服读者和听众,收获是可以想见的。这个单元后来被不少美国同事所仿效和引用。

布置写作项目(project),当然要考虑修辞环境(题目、读者和目的)。有时,可以明确规定具体的修辞环境,如上面列举的两个单元都对题目、读者对象和写作目的等有具体的规定和要求;有时则可以在规定大的原则框架的基础上让学生自由选择。真实生活中的写作不正是这样吗?
最糟糕的写作课堂是教师自始至终滔滔不绝地讲,学生似懂非懂、兴趣索然地听,师生之间、学生之间、学生、教师与范文或阅读材料之间没有任何真实的交流,没有任何思想火花的碰撞,所布置的写作题目无关痛痒、脱离生活或已经预设了结论。不知道在这样的课堂里,学生能有什么收获,学到什么真正有价值的东西。

b. 协作学习和协作课题(Collaborative Learning and Work)
写作的行为不仅是认知的,而且是社会的,每一篇文章都是在具体的社会和修辞环境中形成的,因而,写作课可以强化写作行为的社会性,让学生在具体、真实的社会环境中阅读、讨论、交流和共同提高。

协作学习在写作课中可以有不同的方法。一是经常在课堂上进行不同类型的小组活动。小组的构成既可由教师指定,也可由学生自由组成。每个小组的大小以3—4人为宜。活动包括讨论某一范文、寻找写作的题目(如果教师不指定的话)、讨论某一有争议的题目、在写作过程的不同阶段相互反馈和提出修改意见等。课堂内的这种小组活动使得每一个学生都有参与(发言)的机会,在小的范围内学生可以更自由地表达自己的感受、认识和看法。小组活动要进行得有效,不是坐在那里闲聊,而是要任务明确,每个小组可以推荐或指定一个组长或书记员(secretary)负责。活动时间的长短根据具体情况而定,太短了不能保证人人有机会参与;太长了就会拖拉走题,效率不佳。教师可以“访问”各个小组,了解讨论情况,掌握学生最感兴趣的热门话题,在全班集中时再重点讨论。小组活动结束时,组长或书记员向全班交流本小组讨论的情况、结果或结论,别的组员也可以补充。小组的组成、活动的方式不必定型,每一单元之间可以变化。另外,还可以布置课外小组活动,如对某一问题做小型的调查研究等。
另一种方法是布置协作课题,也就是小组合作写一篇文章。一般来说,小组的人数在3人左右。合作项目的修辞环境(题目、读者、目的)可以是教师确定的,也可以由小组自由选择。小组如何分工可以有不同的方式。譬如,就研究题目来说,3位成员可以分别负责图书馆调查(查资料)、实地研究和因特网调查等。起草文章时,如果篇幅较大,可在共同确定提纲等情况下,不同成员起草不同部分,然后再由一人综合到一起,再集体反复修改定稿。也可以由不同成员分头起草,然后集体确定采用哪位成员文稿中的哪些部分。为了防止有的成员只是“搭车,”并不实际参与,教师要在写作过程中不断了解进展情况。最后如何评定成绩,应事先定好原则:或以小组为单位,或以个人为单位。另外,每一小组或成员要写本单元协作的总结报告,包括每一成员的分工和具体贡献等。如果是以小组为单位计成绩,教师应保留在特殊情况下给不同成员不同成绩的权力。

在美国,这种协作学习和协作写作项目可以说从小学到大学各个教育阶段都经常采用,其效果,不仅提高了学习的质量和写作水平,而且让学生有机会学习在社会环境中如何与别人合作、解决分歧、达成一致,以完成任务。

c. 辩论(Debating)
写作的质量在很大程度上取决于作者对题目认识的深度。对问题认识的深化,常常是在不同的感觉、认识和观点的碰撞中产生的。尤其是写有争议的题目,通过辩论可以让学生更全面地了解问题,接触不同的观点,认识问题的复杂性,通过评判思维(参见第9章),最后确立自己的立场。了解不同的观点,也为在自己的争论文章中说服读者提供了资料。
在组织课堂辩论时,可以把全班分成若干个小组,某些小组是正方,某些小组是反方(由教师指定或小组自己选择),每一小组可以先在组内酝酿,为自己的立场提供分析和论据,然后开始辩论,教师是组织者。这种辩论不必太拘泥于形式,像这几年组织的国际大专电视辩论那么正规。辩论的内容,除了具有一般意义上的题目(网络使人们更接近还是更疏远?电脑会不会取代书本?美是客观存在还是主观感受?) 以外,还可以来自学生自己的真实生活。至于学生们是否能像百里挑一的电视辩论选手那么伶牙利齿并不重要,因为组织辩论的主要目的是让学生看到问题的不同侧面,加深对题目的认识。辩论的时间也不必太长,一堂50分钟的课可以辩论两三个题目。辩论过程中,教师的角色是组织安排者,辩论结束时,教师可以评点。所谓评点,不是论谁赢谁输、谁最能言善辩,而是总结辩论揭 示出来的问题的复杂性,帮助学生归纳、分类和总结材料,提高对事物的认识能力,这种能力的提高,将最终反映在写作质量的提高上。

d. 学生作品的“发表”(Publishing)
学生终于把作文交了上来,教师评点完毕,给个成绩,一个单元就这么结束了。作者以为,这简直是太可惜了:学生忙碌了两三个星期,最后只有一个读者(教师)、得到一个成绩,这是多大的浪费啊。
作者的做法是在单元结束时给学生一个“发表”的机会:让学生在班上宣读自己的作文。这么做的好处是,学生有机会直接听取读者的意见或反馈,交流体会(包括成功的和失败的),大家共同切磋提高。这种发表既可以小组为单位,也可让全班围坐一圈,在认真而轻松的氛围中进行。按照作者的设计,每一学期每一个学生至少有一次发表的机会。在每一个单元结束的那一天,安排一堂课,由4—5个学生发表作文。这4—5个学生可以是在学期初通过抓阄(10ttery)确定的,也可以是当堂邀请或指定。发表者先简要说明一下有关写作过程中的一些体会和问题,然后阅读全文(结束时,大家热烈鼓掌以示感谢和鼓励)。然后,教师邀请听众谈感想、发表评论等(譬如,喜欢什么? 哪些地方不够清楚、需要调查、核实?哪些地方可以有不同写法?)。如果学生冷场,教师可以示范,以讨论、探询和评点的口气,引导作者和听众一起欣赏该作文成功的地方,提出修改建议等。这样公开评点讨论,使发表者本人和听众(其他学生)共同受益。为了鼓励所有的学生都参加,可以把发表计入本单元的成绩(譬如,如果满分的作文是100分,发表另加20分,作者在美国大学的经历是,绝大多数学生是要这20分的)。应该注意的是,当着全班同学发表作文,对每一个学生来说,是一个非同小可的公开活动,教师要注意以积极肯定的态度引导整个过程,以探讨、提建设性建议为主,而不是挑毛病,把学生弄得灰溜溜的,达不到组织发表活动的目的。

e. 日记(Journal Writing)
这里所说的“日记”与通常人们的日记(diary)不是一回事。它虽然可以包括对日常生活中所发生的事情和感受的记录,但重点是与写作课(就写作课而言,在美国,许多其他课程,也要求学生写这样的日记)有关的内容。因而,很多日记的题目是由教师布置的,譬如让学生在阅读某一篇文章后写下自己的感受,评论其中的某一观点、文章的结构和风格等。这类日记多数是在课外写,也可以安排在课内。应该经常布置这类日记,才能称其为日记,才有效果。写作的风格是轻松、自由、非正式的、带有探索和思考的意味。可以不定期的收上来,给予简要的评语和成绩,计入本课程的总成绩。在评估时,重点是内容,而不是语法之类的表层。日记是正式作文的一种补充或辅助性活动,是写作的第二园地,它有助于提高学生的阅读质量、思考和写作的能力,也为课内讨论做好充分准备、为正式论文提供素材。

f. 评估和打分(Evaluating and Grading)
给学生作文评估(evaluating)和打分(grading)的目的是什么?是为了帮助学生更好地学习、提高阅读写作能力,还是奖励优秀的作文、惩罚差的作文?或是两者的结合?如果两者兼而有之,孰重孰轻?如果我们认为写作是一个复杂和反复的认知和社会过程,应该把教学的注意力放在这个过程上,而不是简单地盯住它的产品(虽然产品也是很重要),那么,评估就应该是更多地放在学生的作文交上来之前,放在写作的全过程,也就是说在写作过程中给学生以启发和指导性的反馈(feedback)。

如何在写作过程中给学生以启发和指导性的反馈呢?
下列几点可供参考:
 反馈应该贯穿于写作的全过程,特别是在创造、规划和修改等关键阶段。
 反馈应考虑到布置的写作项目(pr响ect)的具体修辞环境(题目、环境和目的),无论这个修辞环境是既定的还是学生自己选择的。
 在写作过程的早期阶段,反馈应该是宏观的,着重于对题目的处理、研究、结构等重要方面,不要过多注意句子、语法及词汇等微观层次(过早注意微观层次,就如同在建造一座楼房的早期阶段,过多考虑某一块砖该放在哪里、某一房间该用什么颜色或花纹的贴墙纸,忽视整个楼房的基础、结构和布局等)。
 反馈应该是有选择的,在某一阶段选择一两个最重要的方面提出启发或建设性的建议,而不是面面俱到,特别是当一篇初稿问题比较多时;无所不包的反馈有可能弄得学生灰心丧气,无所适从,不知究竟如何着手修改。
 学会在反馈时发现文稿中好的东西,以真诚的热情加以赞扬,再提出清楚,而有建设性的修改建议。
 给作文打分时,要有明确的标准:(从内容到形式),既要参照某一年级学生应该达到的水平,又要参照该作文在全班学生中的相对水平,更重要的是要附上简明、清楚的评语:强在哪里,弱在哪里,应该如何修改和提高,让学生知道该在什么地方下工夫。

要做到这些,就必须在写作课的每一个单元,从布置写作项目开始之时起,教师就直接参与每一个学生的写作过程,除了课堂上的集体讨论和交流外,还要有若干次的一对一的交流,这种交流可以是在课堂上,也可以是在教师的办公室。具体如何操作,要根据教育阶段 (小学、中学、大学)、班级大小等因素而定。这样,一个学期,六七个单元下来,教师对每一个学生的写作都有了比较清楚的了解,并能给予具体的、针对性很强的指导,一定会取得良好的效果。

g. 学生代表作选(Portfolio)
代表作选广泛运用于美术、设计等领域(如某位画家要在某美术馆举行画展,就得先向展览馆有关人员展示代表作;在美国申请大学的艺术专业就要向有关录取委员会或教授展示自己的代表作;许多需要动笔写文章的岗位或职业,申请工作时也是要准备和出示代表作的。把这个方法借用到写作课的教学,就是在学期的最后一两个星期,让每一个学生:

1)从自己整个学期的写作实践中挑出两三篇(具体数目由教师确定)自己最满意、最具代表性的作文,每一篇作文应包括从创造到修改的全部过程的文字资料,如草稿等;
2)从中选出一篇,以学期结束时的眼光和水平、参照老师、同学们的反馈和建议,再次修改;
3)写一篇学期总结报告(可以书信体或正式文章体):描述每一篇代表作的题目、既定读者和写作目的等;说明为什么选这几篇为代表作,选用的标准是什么,在代表作中是如何体现的;再次修改那篇文章所达到的效果;
4)评估写作课的最大收获(具体的、而不是空泛的,要引用具体事例,如怎样研究、修改和构思等)。

当然,每一位教师都可以根据自己的想法和需要来设计代表作选的内容和要求及其在总成绩中占有的分量等。对代表作选的评估,主要是注意所选的代表作本身和学生自己对代表作的思考和评估。这样的活动,如果组织好了,效果是可以想见的。

h. 电脑、多媒体、因特网 (Computer,Multimedia and Internet)
信息化时代的到来对写作课(以及所有其他课程)的教学带来了 巨大的机遇和挑战。在美国,很多大学的写作课的教室实际上就是电脑实验室,每一个学生和教师都有一台电脑,配有若干激光打印机,教室里的电脑不仅都相互联网,而且都与因特网相接。这使得教学与写作的整个过程,从阅读、研究、讨论(范文和学生自己的作文)、交流到修改等,都可以在电脑和网上进行。
实际上,现在很多大学都在开设网上写作课,在所谓的模拟教室(virtual classroom)里上课,教师与学生、学生与学生之间每一学期恐怕只见几次面,所有的活动都是在网上进行的。电脑和因特网,尤其是后者是否能提高学生的写作水平,还待研究。肯定者为之欢呼、鼓劲,说这是一场革莫道不消魂命,把学生和教师从时空限制中解放出来,使他们得以放开手脚,最大限度地参与教学的全部过程;否定者为之哀叹,认为电脑和因特网使人们离得越来越远,那是一个冰冷的,没有面孔和人气的世界,无论如何也是不能替代师生聚集一堂、面对面热烈讨论所带来的教学效果的。
不管怎么说,电脑和因特网已进入了我们生活的圈子里,包括写作教学,这个大趋势,恐怕是不可逆转的。每一个从事写作教学的教师都应给予关注,研究如何充分利用高科技的手段,来获得最佳的教学效果。
[img]http://images.blogcn.com/2006/9/9/8/writingybu,20060909143314.jpg[/img]

[b]Love Your Life[/b]
Henry David Thoreau
However mean your life is, meet it and live it; do not shun it and call it hard names. It is not so bad as you are. It looks poorest when you are richest. The fault-finder will find faults in paradise. Love your life, poor as it is. You may perhaps have some pleasant, thrilling, glorious hours, even in a poor-house. The setting sun is reflected from the windows of the alms-house as brightly as from the rich man's abode; the snow melts before its door as early in the spring. I do not see but a quiet mind may live as contentedly there, and have as cheering thoughts, as in a palace. The town's poor seem to me often to live the most independent lives of any. May be they are simply great enough to receive without misgiving. Most think that they are above being supported by the town; but it often happens that they are not above supporting themselves by dishonest means, which should be more disreputable. Cultivate poverty like a garden herb, like sage. Do not trouble yourself much to get new things, whether clothes or friends, Turn the old, return to them. Things do not change; we change. Sell your clothes and keep your thoughts.
不论你的生活如何卑贱,你要面对它生活,不要躲避它,吏别用恶言咒骂它。它不像你那样坏。你最富有的时候,倒是看似最穷。爱找缺点的人就是到天堂里也能找到缺点。你要爱你的生活,尽管它贫穷。甚至在一个济贫院里,你也还有愉快、高兴、光荣的时候。夕阳反射在济贫院的窗上,像身在富户人家窗上一样光亮:在那门前,积雪同在旱春融化。我只看到,一个从容的人,在哪里也像在皇宫中一样,生活得心满意足而富有愉快的思想。城镇中的穷人,我看.倒往往是过着最独立不羁的生活。也许因为他们很伟大,所以受之无愧。大多数人以为他们是超然的,不靠城镇来支援他们:可是事实上他们是往往利用了不正当的手段来对付生活,他们足毫不超脱的,毋宁是不体面的。视贫穷如园中之花而像圣人一样耕植它吧!不要找新的花样,无论是新的朋友或新的衣服,来麻烦你自己。找旧的,回到那里去。万物不变,是我们在变。你的衣服可以卖掉,但要保留你的思想。

B. Pedagogies

1) 形式法(Formalist)
这是一个十分“传统”的写作教学模式。它强调文章的内在形式,在这些形式中,最受重视的是语法。崇尚形式法的人士认为,一篇优秀文章的基本要素在于句子结构层次上“正确无误”(或曰:语法好就是好文章)。在课堂上,教师把教学的主要精力和时间都花在语法练习上,教学生如何识别、避免、纠正语法和句型错误。除了语法以外,这一流派的一些教师还特别强调用比喻性的语言来描写或阐述内容,因而被某些学者称为比喻形式法(metaphorical formalist);有的教师特别强调句子长短的变化,因而被称为句子长度形式法 (sentence-length formalist);有的强调主题句,因而被称为主题句形式法(topic-sentence formalist)。
形式法的主要代表人物是弗朗西斯•克里斯敦森(Francis Christensen)和E.D.赫希(E.D.Hirsche)。
形式法对于写作这一复杂的技术、认知和社会过程的理解过于狭窄。优秀文章固然会在语法、句式方面有所体现,不仅不犯错误,而且注意句式变化,利用各种修辞手段来达到写作目的。但形式好仅仅是优秀文章的一个方面,而且并不一定是最重要的方面。可以想象,在一个写作课堂(不管是英语的,还是汉语的)里,教师整天带着学生操练语法、句型、修辞格,日复一日地进行脱离真实生活、没有完整意义表达的空洞练习,会培养出什么样的写作水平来。美国的一些大学生讨厌和害怕写作课,与这种令人乏味、生厌的教学方法不能说没有一定的关系。
这种模式在理论上早被唾弃或淘汰,但在实践中仍然有一定市场,一些教师死死抱住不放。一位美国大学生告诉作者,有一位教师,要求每一篇作文一定要有若干个段落,每一段落必须有若干个句子,其中各种句型和不同长短的句子必须达到规定的指标等等。殊不知:一篇文章完全可以在形式上达到那些规定的字数指标,但是,这又能说明什么问题呢?这样的写作教学不是误人子弟吗?

2) 学科中心法(Discipline-Centered)
根据有些美国学者的研究,自19世纪以来,相当多的写作课堂采取了学科中心法。这个模式强调修辞、逻辑和语言,在课堂上使用很多范文,指导学生提高在逻辑性、语法、句型、词语、用法和风格方面的正确性和表达能力。目前,在美国很多大学方兴未艾的所谓跨学科写作(Writing Across the Curriculum),很可能是从这个传统衍生出来的。
跨学科写作有两种教学模式,一是在具体的学科(不管是社会学科还是自然学科)课程里加入写作的成分,包括日记(journal)和小论文(paper);一是在英语系专门开设跨学科写作课。后者通常是学生在修过新生写作课(freshman composition)及格以后才能注册,它的目的是指导学生在不同学科的环境里写作,学习、熟悉并掌握这些学科写作的修辞环境(题目、读者和目的)、规范(结构、体例、风格等),以帮助学生逐渐融入所主修的那个专业的群体(academic or professional community),成为其中的一员。
跨学科写作课的好处是显而易见的。很多大学毕业生在进入自己的专业以后,是通过自己摸索、经过多次挫折后才学会在本学科环境里写作的。因而,在学生时代就受到这方面的训练为日后在本专业内的言语交流——如撰写论文等——打下了一定的基础,避免多走弯路。不过,跨学科写作对非英语和英语专业的教师却是个考验。
非英语专业的教师对专业熟悉,但并不一定具备教授和指导学生写作的能力。而对英语(或任何语言教师来说),教这样的课程,要求他(她)不仅熟悉写作教学,而且要对其他一些学科有个基本了解,这对很多写作教师来说真是勉为其难了。至于学生,要修好这样的课,也并非易事。他们中的大多数只是大学一二年级学生,按照一般美国大学的课程设置,一二年级的学生主要是修普通或核心教育(general/core education)和基础课程,对自己的专业至多是刚刚接触,因而,要他们在自己的学科里撰写论文等,的确是个不大不小的难题。不少学校安排写作课教师和其他学科的教师合作教学跨学科写作课,可谓珠联璧合,互为补充,是一种最佳的配对。

3) 现时-传统法(Current-Traditional)
这个写作教学模式重视写作行为的产品,而不是它的过程,注重从词汇、句子和段落等层次分析语篇,并将不同语篇分成四大类:描写,叙事,释义,论辩。
十分强调用法(包括句型、拼写和标点符号)、风格;所教学的主要文体是随笔、杂文(informal essay)和研究论文(research paper)。一些美国学者认为,在20世纪的大部分时间里,这个模式主导了大多数人的写作教学实践。
美国学者丹尼尔•法嘉悌(Daniel Fogarty)认为,这个模式的基础是亚里士多德哲学(强调思想、事物、词语三者之间的统一关系、抽象、定义、逻辑和辩证法等),只不过是随着时间的推移,加上了语法、句型、拼写、标点符号等成分;再就是把语篇分成词语、句子和段落等层次、把语篇分成几大类、强调风格等。也就是说,该模式从本源上来说,并非只注重形式,而是注意内容与形式的统一,只是现在常常很难看到这种统一罢了。另一位美国学者,詹姆斯•伯林(James Berlin)主张在这个教学模式前加上“实证主义”(positivist)的修饰词,因为该模式的认识论基础是:人的思维与外部世界有着并不复杂的直接关联,而语言既可以与外部世界的事物也可以与语言使用者头脑里的概念直接相关。这个模式要求读者和作者一样保持“客观性,”抛弃自己和社会的“偏见,”只有这样,才能准确传播和接受可以感觉到的客观世界的信息。
也许这个模式的哲学基础的确如法嘉悌所说,是强调内容和形式统一的,但在实践中,常常是只偏重形式,因而与前面提到的“形式法”在本质上是一脉相承的。如果这个模式如伯林所说是实证主义的,那么它的认识论基础又很可能是简单幼稚的。在纷繁复杂的世界里,人人都带着浓厚的主观色彩的眼光去观察世界,这个世界观是受自己的社会、经济、教育和成长过程等诸多因素的影响而形成的,而语言本身也并非透明的、中性的、不带价值取向的。实际上,在多元文化的今天,所谓“客观”常常是主流社会(在社会中占主导地位的阶层、群体)的价值观和意志的体现。
该模式后来也汲取了其他——诸如修辞法模式(rhetorical)的一些手段,如预写活动(prewriting)等,在实际教学中仍然具有很大的影响。

4) 修辞法(Rhetorical)
修辞教学法的兴起约在20世纪初。它认为所谓优秀文章(或任何长度的写作行为的产品)是指文章“能对预定的读者产生预定的效果。”如果把同一篇文章拿给不同的读者阅读,它所得到的评价就可能不同。所谓预定效果就是在文章开首提出某一社会问题,经过正文、抵达文章结尾时,能取得改变读者的态度、观点或行为的效果。
这一方法的一个重要特点就是把古典修辞学中的“创造”(invention)重新挖掘出来,强调修辞者、读者和语言三者之间的关系。当时,修辞法派并没有对写作教学本身产生任何影响,它的直接结果是美国演讲学会的成立(1914年)和演讲作为一个独立学科从英语系分离出去。
修辞学在英语系的重新崛起要等到40年代。从此到60年代,一些以经典修辞学为基础的写作教材和指南相继出现。1968年美国修辞学会成立,对这个时代的许多学者来说,把古典修辞学重新引入写作教学是对“现时—传统法”的挑战。不过,由于缺少系统接受过古典修辞学体系教育和训练的教师,这个流派并没有真正产生很大影响。
尽管在这个流派内部还有一些细微的差别,总的来说,它强调“创造”。在古典修辞学中,创造的目的是为了在听众(或读者)身上产生心理或感情的变化。新一代的修辞派则不仅强调对听众(或读者)产生的心理变化,而且把创造当成解决问题(problem-solving)的过程。所要解决的问题可以分为两类:作者在对周围世界的体验中所遇到的问题;作者在需要改变别人(也就是写作)的过程中遇到的问题。
有些学者把预写活动(prewriting)当成一种创造活动。这些活动包括日记(journal)、思考和比喻思维(metaphorical thinking)等,以活跃写作的行为和过程。从教学方法角度而言,预写活动与下面的所谓表露模式(expressive)紧密相连。

5) 表露法(Expressive)
这个模式把写作作为自我表达或表露的工具,因而特别看重那些带有“有趣的、令人可信的、诚实的和具有个性声音的”写作产品。这个模式起于60年代并不奇怪,当时美国的进步运动(包括反战、民权等)正席卷全国,教育领域也在发生巨变,倡导以学生为中心的教育哲学和方法,强调学生的经历、兴趣和动力。一位学者是这样用人的发展成熟理论来解释以学生为中心的教育法的:“人类自身拥有完善自我的种子,如果任其自然生长,不遭受社会或环境制约因素的阻碍或伤害,是会自己盛开成花朵的……。”
表露法常用的一个手段就是预写活动,用来探索作者自己内在的感受和想法。不过,表露法能否最终提高学生的写作能力和质量?下面对“程序法”的讨论也许能部分地回答这个问题。

6) 模仿法(Mimetic)
这个模式强调写作与客观世界的相吻合或对应的关系。具体地说,它强调“好的写作与好的思维”之间的逻辑关系,认为很多学生文章写得不好的一个重要原因是思维的混乱或不清晰,没有理清问题的头绪。从教学角度来说,克服这个弱点的方法就是培养学生推理和逻辑思维的能力,掌握了推理和逻辑思维的方法,学生就有写好文章的基础了。另一个与这个流派有关的观点是,学生写不好文章的,主要原因是所知和懂得的东西太少,解决的方法是在写作的早期阶段鼓励学生多进行研究(research),强调发现(discovery)的程序,让学生阅读有关同一题目的不同观点的文章。再一种方法就是训练学生“正确思维之艺术,”强调思维与语言之间的交互或辩证关系。
总的来说,这种以逻辑为基础的教育法很少注意读者因素或写作过程。不过,这个流派中的某些学者不把知识看成是静止不变的,等待着被启动使用。相反,知识是动态的,辩证的,是各种相反成分交互过程的产物。知识是被创造出来的关系,而不是预先就存在的、等待着被发现的。按照这个观点,写作帮助发现(discovery)的过程,因为作者在写作过程中用语言与自己谈话,并由此发现新的东西。不过,这个模式——称之为模仿法、新修辞法或逻辑法也好——在本章提到的几个流派中影响最小,在实际教学中很少被采用,从以这个模式为基础的写作教材之少,可见一斑。

7) 程序法(Process)
可以毫不夸张地说,这个模式在目前的美国写作教学实践中占着绝对的主导地位。虽然学者们和教学实践者们对于究竟什么是程序法,它的理论基础、基本概念和实践中的诸多方面还有不同看法,几乎很难找到不在某种程度上受到它的影响的写作课教师了。
该模式的基础是对写作者(包括成名的作家、普通作者及初习者)实际写作过程的研究和描述,而不是这一过程的产品:文稿或文本。严格意义上说,这个教学法并不是一个模式,而是一个过程,这个过程所包括的方法——预写活动、创造、酝酿(incubating)、起草、修改等——可以在前面讨论过的某些模式里找到它们的身影。程序法之流行,以致当今美国大学课堂上所用的写作教材(达数十种之多)不是明目张胆地采用,就是把它的一些成分、步骤、方法、术语等借用到“现时—传统法”、“修辞法、”或“表露法”等教学模式中。总的说来,现今的写作教学不仅重视最后的结果,而且更注重产生这个结果的过程。
那么,在实践中,写作究竟是一个什么样的过程呢?是简单的 (用笔把字写在纸上)、直线型的(从确定题目、构思、起草、修改、校对)?还是复杂的(涉及诸多认知和社会的因素并受具体修辞环境的制约)、迂回反复的?崇尚程序法的学者们的回答当然是后者。程序教学法兴起于70年代,是对传统的重视语法、形式等教学法的挑战,旨在把注意力从评价、评估学生的产品转向帮助学生更好地认识写作过程,在学生的写作过程中——预写活动、思考、酝酿、研究、讨论、构思和修改等——帮助他们。
一些学者和教师通过研究,主张不要教学生写那种“学院或学术似”(academic)的四平八稳,正正规规、不痛不痒的文章,而要鼓励他们放开手脚,大胆探索,寻找自己的声音(voice)和风格(包括以第一人称的“我”的口气写论文)。英国学者詹姆斯•布里藤(James Britton)把写作分为三大类:文学性的(poetic),包括小说、诗歌、戏剧等;表达或表露性的(expressive),比较放开地探索一个题目或自己的思绪和感觉,读者可能是自己或朋友;互动性的(transactional),写作者向自己以外的读者(包括教师、同学等)传递信息、解释概念、说服他们改变自己的观点、立场等。布里藤认为,多数学生在写表达或表露性文章时比较得心应手,而写互动性的文章时则比较吃力、显得断断续续、坎坎坷坷,不大成功。学校应该给学生更多的写前者的机会,这也是前面提到的表露法风行一时的一个重要原因。不过,表露法能否最终提高学生的写作能力和质量?学习写这类表露文章究竟要达到什么教育和社会目的?写作自我表达文章能力的提高能否转移成互动性文章的写作能力的提高?这些都是有待探讨的。
总的来说,美国的教育鼓励学生发展个性、自信和用自己的声音说话,但作者所教过的大学生中也不乏那种写起文章来怯怯生生、说话没有个性和信心的人。为什么?中学时代的某些英语教师教导他们在正式的文章中“绝对、永远不要用‘我”’所致也!这些学生需要很多的鼓励才能试探着走出那些人为的框框。不过,应该认识到的是,不同的修辞环境需要不同的文章(表露性的或互动性的),一个成熟的作者应该能在不同的写作、修辞环境中调整自己的风格和声音,以相适应。“学院或学术式”的正规、严肃和一本正经的文体、不带个性色彩的风格自有它的用处,而具有强烈个性的声音、风格或色彩的文章也自有其价值和魅力,不能用简单僵硬的标准去衡量所有的文章。
对程序教学法的形成颇有影响的是林达•芙拉奥尔(Linda Flower)和约翰•赫斯(John R.Hayes)两位学者的研究。他们采用认知心理学(cognitive psychology)的研究方法对写作全过程进行研究,通过分析研究结果,把写作行为分成三大部分:

任务环境(task environment):包括题目、到目前为止所写出来的文本(text)
写作过程(writing process):包括修改、评估(revising、evaluating)、规划(planning)、转化(translating)等次要过程 (sub-process)
作者长时记忆(1ong term memory)

他们的研究有3个重要发现:
1)写作者在写作时随时“进出”(access)任务环境和长时记忆、交替进行写作过程所包括的那些次要过程,因而,写作过程不是直线的(1inear),而是曲折反复的(recursive);
2)初学者与有经验的写作者在使用那些次要过程的方法上不同;
3)具体写作行为采用什么过程或过程如何发展是由任务的性质决定的。不过,虽然写作的过程没有定向(因而不能一刀切、让所有的学生都采用同一个程序),但不同的活动和次程序之间具有一定的主与次、先与后的关系。

由于写作的过程是曲折反复的,很多学者把研究的精力放在了修改上。既然包括成名的作家都要数易其稿,学生就更应该给予充足的时间来修改文稿,并在这一过程中得到教师和同学的帮助。这里所谓的修改,与一般概念上的润色、校对具有了本质性的差别。修改已经是再认识、再创造、再发现的过程。在美国大学的教学实践中,一般一篇论文(essay,paper,或project)要花两三个星期的周期,而修改(包括自己修改、同学之间互相修改、教师修改)在这其中占重要的分量。
如果说芙拉奥尔和赫斯的研究注重写作时发生在头脑里,也就是认知(cognitive)的过程的话,另外一些学者则注重研究对写作行为具有影响的社会和文化因素。他们认为,写作的好坏不仅在于个人的才能等因素,社会和文化环境也有重要的影响。通常,家境比较贫寒(社会阶层低、经济收入差和父母没有受过高等教育等)的学生写作能力和产品比不上家境优越的学生。这些学者把写作看成是社会化(socialization)的过程,因而主张写作课应该帮助差的学生提高写作能力,尤其是“学院或学术式”(academic)正规文章的能力,以达到帮助他们融入“学院或学术”群体(academic community),最终改变他们的社会地位的目的。这些学者开始转向古典修辞学,尤其它对写作环境(context)和写作目的的关注。在古典修辞学里,写作不是为了表现自我,而是为了影响读者。这种对于写作的社会文化因素的关注,引出跨学科写作课(Writing Across the Curriculum)、基础写作课(basic writing,给基础薄弱的学生补习基本能力和知识,帮助他们适应大学和学科环境下的写作并融入这样的社会)、协作学习(collaborative learning),让学生在写作的全过程中互相交流、帮助,提供反馈,甚至合作写作项目,在一种强化了的社会环境中学习)和把阅读与写作联系起来等研究和教学实践。
对写作行为和过程的这些研究和认识,对于写作课的实际教学具有重要的意义,它对教师如何设计课程、创造学习环境、布置作业,以致批改作业和打分等都有着直接的影响。程序法虽然在当今美国的写作课教学中占有主导地位,但在实践中,它经常夹杂了许多其他模式的成分,而理论与实践是否吻合、这种教学法是否能带来更好的效果——学生是否能写出更优秀的文章来——还有待进一步研究和分析。

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
2. Psychological Analysis of Foreign Language Writing (外语写的教学的心理分析外语写的教学的心理分析)

不言而喻,我们这里所指的写的教学,主要指母语为字符文字系统的中国学生学习使用其他国家或地区的表音文字来表达思想,进行交际。在一般的外语教学中,“写”常常未被作为学习的目标。多数是以培养阅读外语书报和进行简单会话的能力为最终目的。阅读当然也是与笔语打交道,但只是培养理解笔语的能力。而写的教学当然应以培养产生性笔语能力为主要目标。这在高校外语专业的大纲中已有明确规定,设有一定课时的作文课,要求实现规定的写的任务,培养大纲规定的产生性笔语能力。当然,各种具有特定目的的外语教学,常常侧重某个方面的语言能力,培养写的能力的外语教学也是同样可以组织的。再者,即使是不以培养写的能力为目标的教学,表面看来似乎没有“写”的地位,实际上写的活动仍然是存在的,尽管还只是停留在较低的层次上。例如,用笔语回答问题,这便是常见的帮助学习的写的活动。许多书面作业也都是写的活动。
这里必须充分考虑到外语学习或第二语言学习的特点。如果第一语言即本族语总是先在生活中实际掌握了口语,然后通过文化学习来掌握笔语,那么,外语学习却是口笔语结合同时学习的。除生活在特殊语言环境中的少数人外,一般在国内条件下都不可能先掌握外语口语。先学习几句话是可能伪,要掌握口语则显然不那么容易。通常总是通过书本来学习外语。尽管现在有了较好的视听媒体可以利用,一般外语教学还是从认读字母开始,少不了书面材料。从初学开始,写的活动就一直占有一定的比重。首先是应学会书写。由此可见,写的教学固然主要指高年级或专业外语方面的写作课或作文课,以帮助学生学会写作文章,信件,报告、日记等各种类型书面材料为目的。但也不能不包含句子水平的书面练习,甚至最基本的书写能力的培养。书写即书法,还根本不是写作,但却是不可缺少的组成部分。从而理所当然地被视为低层次的写的教学任务。

a. 书写的心理分析
书写是人用手握笔在纸张或其他材料表面上写出文字符号的运动技能。按加涅(R. M. Gegne)的说法,运动技能是协调运动的能力。这种能力是习得的,是通过练习和反馈逐渐形成的精确和连贯的,受到内部心理过程控制的实际肌肉运动。因而也称为心因运动技能(Psychomotor skill)。又因运动技能常与知觉联系在一起,也可称为知觉—运动技能(perceptual-motor skill)。
书写作为一种运动技能具有以下特点:
(1)书写是一种连续的技能。连续的技能是要求在内部心理过程控制下对外部情境进行不断调节,以连贯的操作和动作(或称熟练的操作和动作)为特征。书写总是一个字母连着一个字母写出来,字母之间每一中间反应都是指引学习者在反应连锁中前进.一步的思想。初学者几乎是把下一个字母读出来,这也就是将操作分解成许多小步。随着练习的增多,中间反应逐渐成为不必要而消失。学习者可以流利自如、快速而准确地写出词和句来。
(2)书写是手脑并用的技能。口语依靠发音器官的运动,用声音把要讲的话说出来,而笔语则用手部动作把要讲的话写下来。没有意识的控制,发音器官和手的动作都不能构成所需的言语。同样的,即使掌握一门语言的知识技能,没有手的书写活动或者说没有经过书写训练,也不可能产生书面的言语。这中间存在着一个由思考中的动觉编码亦即可听到的词通过手部的动觉编码转换为视觉编码即可看到的词的过程。
(3)书写是一个包含自动化部分的自觉过程。书写过程中存在着认知心理学所强调的目的,计划,内部程序或表象的作用,也存在着行为主义主张的强化和自动化的作用。总体上说,书写是一个自觉的过程,随时受到意识的监控和所发出的指令。但部分写的动作却因反复练习而自动化。从而在熟练的书写过程中,局部的自动化动作被融于综合的大连锁之中,并不对每个字母的书写做出孤立的反应。
基于以上心理特点可知,书写技能是一种不同于一般运动技能的以手部动作产生言语信号的运动技能。而这种技能是可在充分考虑有关心理特点基础上通过有效训练获得的。

b. 外语书写技能的获得
学习外语不同于学习本族语,一般都是口笔语同时学习的,亦即大都是从书本上学习语言。因此在学习的最初就要学会发音和书写。二者是紧密相连的。写出字母而不知读音,那等于绘图,不成其为语言符号,反之,发出音来而不知如何写,这样的音也就捉摸不定。两种情况带给外语初学者的只是尚未掌握字母的感觉。
通常都是在入门教学阶段,结合语音教学进行书写教学。教完字母的发音之后应随即教字母的书写。书写教学以临摹亦即模仿为主,临摹包括模仿教师的板书和按习字帖或教科书上的字样书写。为了使学生能有效地模仿从而取得较好的书写成绩,从心理上分析,主要有以下几个方面值得注意:
(1)应适当指出书写要领和应注意点。学生在没有指导的情况下虽然也能看到教师的书写动作或书上字母的形状,但对许多细微的关键部分和要求却并未正确地领会。特别是学生的注意,如无适当的引导,往往很难恰如其分地指向最重要的地方。因此,简单地讲解要领极为重要。通常外语教学过程中进行书写教学时应提出明确的规范,如要求字母大小基本一致,笔划,笔顺合乎规格,指出哪些字母应高起来,哪些应低下去,指出每个字母的书写特点是什么,许多初学者的外语书写错误都是来源于不懂书写要领。
(2)应在学习最初打好书写基础。许多人书写很工整美观,这是学习最初就严格训练,认真按规格书写的结果。许多人书写不佳,长期不能得到改进,也正是由于初期未重视书写,未经过严格训练的结果。当然,这不是说,以后好好练习就不能练好书写,而是说一开始就抓好书写训练比较方便、省事,轻而易举。以后重新抓书写训练相对地比较困难,因为错误的习惯一旦形成要改变也很困难。正是由于书写是一种运动技能。运动技能一经形成,不致轻易遗忘和消退。会游泳者即使数十年不下水也仍能游泳。学习最初迅速掌握书写技能显然很为有利。为此,应当严要求。应让学习者多临摹好的书写范本,要求最初使用三格练习本准格书写。做得更好些的,可以分解基本笔划,进行基本笔划训练。合理的书写教学,还应考虑按笔划特点逐渐增长书写难度。逐渐从单个字母的书写到字母连写进而转入词和句的连续书写。这就要求进行节奏练习提高书写速度。
(3)应关心书写技能的发展。许多人在学习初期能认真书写,以后似乎再也不必注意书写了。其实,学习初期即入门教学,虽然能进行些基本训练,也可能取得较好的成绩,但能够达到的程度并不太高,特别是不可能很熟练。为此,在以后的学习中仍应不断注意学生书写技能的发展。须知运动技能的形成一般有三个阶段:认知阶段、联系形成阶段和自动化阶段。书写正是这样,首先应通过认知阶段,注意应予反应的线索,知道如何书写。然后是通过联系形成阶段,建立动作连锁。在这一阶段还必须排除过去经验中习惯的干扰。本族语语文的书写不可避免地会对外文的书写产生一定的迁移或干扰(即负迁移)。学习不同的语言迁移和干扰的情况也大不相同。最后才是自动化。要达到这样的水平,必须经过大量实践。要达到较高的水平,需要经过多年的练习。要保持较高的水平,同样需要大量练习。因而仅仅在学习初期打下的基础还是很不够的。必须在以后的学习过程中继续提出书写正确、美观的要求,并不断纠正错误,进行适当指导,保持良好的书写习惯,培养流利的书写技能。
(4)重视练习和反馈。掌握技能不同于掌握知识。不经多次甚至是许多次的练习很难形成熟练的技能。外语教学过程中,除入门阶段即语音教学阶段应重视书写教学,适当讲解书写要领并安排必要的练习之外,在随后长期教学过程中还须结合各种书面作业,对书写提出一定要求。让学生在各种书面作业中不断练习书写,使达到较高的水平。为提高练习效果,还应在练习过程中适当提供反馈信息。反馈信息可来自外部,如自己观察书写的结果,或教师及其他人告知书写过程中情况,也可通过录象记录书写的全过程,提供客观的信息。学习者通过对自己书写情况的了解来改进自己的书写技能。反馈信息也可来自内部,主要是肌肉运动的刺激也就是一种动觉提供的信息。一般运动技能练习已达到一定熟练程度时,许多反馈信息可从内部提供,如协调、平衡、节奏等感觉须靠自己体验。书写技能也正是这样,到能够体验到内部信息反馈后,动作才能流畅、自如。

c. 造句水平上写的教学
如前所述,写的教学有不同的层次。书面造句水平上写的教学,应视为写的教学的组成部分,但只是低层次的教学任务。不能正确地造句也就根本不可能顺利写作•。掌握语言仅仅停留在造句水平则明显不足,还需继续提高。书面造句还不是写作,只是写作的基础。造句是言语产生的基本能力,是属于言语表达技能的一部分。口语表达即“说”以口头造句为基础,笔语表达即“写”则无疑应以书面造句为基础。造句毕竟还不是表达思想。表达思想必须考虑社会语境等许多因素,而造句只是按语法要求组织词汇及短语等语言材料。一般说来,书面造句还只是一种语言练习,以培养语言技能为目的。但造句也有不同的层次。初期常用的替换性造句,即围绕一个句型调换个别成分写出句子来,当然是再简单不过。这种练习还只在于熟悉句型,只要求语法正确,不严格限制所表达的意义。较多的造句练习则停留在就一个单词或一种句法结构自由造句,或回答问题,或将本族语句子译成外文句子等这样的水平上。这样的造句除语法正确的要求之外,已经触及语义上的要求。也就是说,造出一个句子总应表达一种思想,提出一点信息,当然不一定是自己的思想。但如果是进行真实书面交际在写作某种材料过程中的造句,那已是在通过造句表达思想。这就必须考虑上下文关系,考虑读者及体裁等诸多方面。
从以上分析可见,造句有不同的层次。而所指“造句水平”主要还是侧重在自由造句方面。在这个层次上,只在句子范围内要求词汇和语法上使用正确,暂不考虑修辞上问题。但必须看到口头造句和书面造句是截然不同的,其明显的区别在于:
(1)口头造句有时间限制,要求迅即完成,而且无暇修改和校正。书面造句一般不受限制(例如课外作业)。即使限时完成(课内练习),也总是比较从容,完成后还能再予检查改正。
(2)口头造句多为急就,无法使用工具书;语法、词汇的使用一般较简单。反之,书面造句有较多时间考虑,而且有可能使用工具书,语法、词汇的使用相应较复杂。
(3)口头造句主要依靠发音器官的发音技能来实现输出功能,造句的效果部分地取决于发音的质量。书面造句主要依靠手的书写技能来实现输出功能,从而书写在书面造句方面也有一定地位。当然,句子内容的优劣主要还是决定于言语表达技能中最为重要的,规范地使用词汇和语法结构形成句子的能力。在这一点上,口语和笔语的训练是一致的。但对笔语在选词造句的质量上有较高的要求,因为人们在运用口语与笔语时,实际上使用着有一定程度区别的词汇和语法结构。也就是说,从语言体裁和风格上,会话语与书卷语之间可以有所不同。

d. 书面造句能力的培养
书面造句通常都是课堂教学中的一种练习形式,其作用一般在于帮助掌握语言,培养言语技能。但为了培养写的技能,无疑应当首先培养书面造句的能力。从而书面造句的练习在教学过程中占据相当重要的地位。当然,并非仅仅通过造句练习就能有效地培养造句能力。每种能力和技能的提高,常常都是多方面配合的结果,特别应当强调的是语言手段的长期积累和积极掌握。语言手段即语言材料包括词汇和惯用的短语乃至句子。无论是口语还是笔语,在计划表达内容时,总是在自己已掌握的语言材料中考虑选用恰当的语言手段。不熟练掌握语言材料和熟悉各种句型,也就不可能顺利地造句。
为了有效地培养学生的书面造句能力,从各种能力心理分析考虑,似应明确以下几点:
(1)对培养书面造句能力说来,学习和习得都是重要的。应自觉掌握语法规则并熟练地自觉运用规则正确造句,又应自觉不自觉地在大量言语实践中广泛接触和积累外语材料。各种语法练习,句型练习都有助于造句能力的培养。
(2)书面造句能力的培养并不限于笔语活动。口语的习得对书面造句也有很大帮助。已经在口语上掌握的句子,写下来就是书面造句。因此,进行写话练习就是利用口语提高造句能力的好形式。而且大量口语活动能大大提高掌握语言材料的熟练程度。
(3)对培养书面造句能力最有帮助,的是阅读。从阅读中能大量接触各种各样的语言材料。新材料可通过多阅读而逐渐吸收,旧材料在读物中出现能得到复习和巩固。应做到课内外结合,自觉进行大量阅读。
(4)培养书面造句能力,既不能仅仅限于进行书面造句练习,而应与其他各方面学习活动结合,同时又不能在进行各方面学习活动情况下完全撇开书面造句不管。应在合理组织各种学习活动同时,侧重书面造句能力的训练,这才能有效地提高书面造句能力,为进一步进行写的训练打好基础。

e. 外语作文教学
写的训练,除学习初期的书写教学和一般的书面造句练习等安排之外,对高校外语专业学生、或中学及其他性质外语教学的高年级说来,一般都设置作文课。作文课上可以要求学生学习写作各种体裁和题材的作品。因而是训练写作技能的课。一般作文课的具体安排,大体是结合一定范文命题要求学生独立写作,然后交教师修改讲评。不同的教师有不同的做法,当然也有不同的效果,更重要的是他们各持不同的理论依据。这里我们不再就各种指导思想展开讨论。但须提出一些我们认为比较符合实际可以接受的观点。首先应明确,写不同于说。“说”要求自动化,而“写”除部分书写技能外主要是一个自觉的过程,并不要求自动
化,必须自觉学习。“写”只能借助文字和标点符号来表达思想,没有面部表情、手势,身体动作等辅助,也没有即时的反馈。唯一的好处是有较多时间进行思考、慎重措词,有时间重看修改,考虑对读者的效果。’
正由于写作是一个自觉的过程,意识和记忆在写作过程中有着特别重要的作用。记忆的恢复并不是一个自动化的机械过程。大脑也并非可以随意开关的机器。思绪是可以分散的。人们在聚精会神进行某种工作或进行某种有趣活动同时,也会突然产生某种幻想或怪念头。人们能意识到自身的感觉或感情,有时也可能把意识停留在未完成的工作或个人职责上,或纠缠在某些问题上。这种思绪涣散的情况并非病态。正常的思维包括想象和幻想在内。与意识有关的几种状态——感觉、意象、幻想、独白、空想、突然焦虑,引导的思考——在意识流中交替变换。在写作时特别有可能变换意识的状态。静坐时,信息处理能力对内部刺激更有效。意识中所有各种非引导的状态,特别是创造性思考和表达,对有次序的思考都是关键的。潜意识中自动出现的某种状态,可能正是对写作中引导的思考不能解决的问题有了解决办法。非常能干的作者使用这种变动的意识流去发现和形成他们要说的话,也不常常是成功的。在作者意识中任何时刻得到的东西,能保持在短时记忆中,但却是不可预料的。

写作是一个自觉的过程,通常包含以下几个阶段:

准备阶段考虑要写什么并搜集资料,
酝酿阶段深入考虑材料内容,进行新的构思,
计划阶段考虑安排材料及内容展开方式,
执笔阶段开始写作,完成初稿,
审看阶段通读全文,划出不足之处,
订正阶段修改、润色,订正。

这个过程并非固定不变的。作者根据自己的条件安排写的过程。有时需要周密计划,有时却很简单,有的准备较多,有的修改较多,审阅和订正也可合为一个阶段。写的过程中有些阶段还可反复。这六个阶段中,前三个阶段都在写作前,也可统称为准备阶段或构思阶段。执笔阶段是写的主要过程即写作中。审阅阶段和订正阶段是写作后的过程。通常学校教学中,审阅阶段和订正阶段与教师的审阅,评改有关。这里我们就写作前、写作中,写作后主要的心理活动,进行简略的分析。
■ 写作前的主要心理活动
(一)对题目的决定与考虑学校教学中作文题通常由教师指定,但也有时在一定范围内由学生自选。如为自选题目,无疑应当写自己最感兴趣而且了解最多的东西。在这种情况下往往是改变题目来满足自己的意图。因而必须慎重推敲所定题目涉及的范围。通常应避免选写范围过大的题目。这就应当注意缩小题目范围。没有必要在一篇文章里向读者介绍所有你所知道的事情。写得太广泛,往往不能深入,读者会感到肤浅而厌烦。对一个问题如欲介绍得详细,就得缩小范围,集中于较小的特殊领域。题目的选定应首先按适当的范围加以限定。这里实际上是考虑了一个“写什么?”的问题。严格说来,选题首先要确定的是写作目的和写作对象,即“为什么写?”和“给谁写?”或者说“读者是谁?”这两个问题的决定影响写作的全过程,当然也首先影响题目范围的确定。正是应考虑写作目的和读者的需要来限定题目的范围,把题目确定下来。
如果是就指定题目进行写作,则不存在选题的问题。然而为写出符合题目要求的文章,作者必须下功夫分析题目的各个方面,现在的问题不是缩小题目范围来适应自己的兴趣,而是要求广泛收集资料来满足题目的需要。这时重要的是要千方百计把指定的题目变成自己的题目。首先是要弄清楚题目涉及的范围与自己已知的东西有多大联系,要尽可能使自己的兴趣和经验与之联系起来。个人经验正好是进入题目所需要的。
(二)酝酿,构思和捕捉灵感 题目既定,应留出一些时间进行酝酿和构思。通过酝酿能促使下意识选择和评价材料,做出新的联系,有时可获得新的观点或解决办法。在尚不知从何下手之际,暂别开始写作,留出时间思考是必要的。不仅如此,当一时思路枯竭时干脆适当休息,去游泳或参加其他活动。回来再提起笔时,可能又有了不少新的想法。当然,这样短时间的放开,不是因循,怠惰、无所是事。酝酿在于积极构思。构思既不全然在于工作,也不全然在于灵感。这是一个意识从集中到分散,在自觉与不自觉之间往返移动、搜寻的过程。往往是在一个奇妙的瞬间,从千个词、一句话或者一件事物、一种现象,产生了新的联想,发现了解决问题的办法,从而获得一种灵感。这是一个在自觉艰苦工作基础上无意识发现灵感的神秘的过程。谁也说不清何时,如何发现灵感。但只有努力工作才有灵感的出现,也就是所谓“豁然贯通”。等待灵感往往是很少有灵感的。这就是说,有效的构思既要有扎实的工作为基础,也要讲究方法善于捕捉灵感。帮助构思和捕捉灵感的方法不少,作者总是根据自己的条件和经验适当选用。从来不会有什么可以一成不变对各种情况都有效的方法。但了解一些方法作为参考,适当结合本人情况试用,看来还是不无好处。这里简介几种如下:
(1)信笔畅书 在构思过程中适当用笔配合很为有效。如能围绕题目不停地畅写二十分钟,写时不管拼写,标点,语法甚至内容的正确与否,迳直想到就写。二十分钟后,读所写材料,划出自己感兴趣甚至感惊讶的部分。然后再就感兴趣的部分不停地写十分钟。完成后,可能会从中找到些自己希望得到的东西。用笔帮助构思的做法还包括图解、树形图、词束网络等多种不同方式。
(2)检验冲突 许多经验都是从冲突中产生的。找到冲突的实质才能找到解决冲突的办法。在构思过程中分析与题目有关的问题,从不同的侧面回答这些问题,就能从发现和检验冲突过程中,明确自己的态度和观点,进而找到许多自己要说的话和思路进一步展开的契机,这也是灵感。
(3)提问六个“w”。一旦题目已定,也缩小到可对付的范围,作者常可就六个“w”对自己提出问题。这就是who(谁),when(何时),where(何地),what(什么)、why(为什么),how(如何)。一篇文章实际上是问答了一系列问题。当然,有些问题是不能回答的,但问题愈多,愈能深入题目的核心。通过这些基本问题还可以产生其他问题。所有这些问题能帮助产生材料,从许多材料中能找到进入文章的办法。当然,任何文章都并不要求面面俱到,总是有所侧重。因而实际上我们总是从这些基本问题中找出与题目的要求最关重要的个别基本问题来进行写作。这也就是以一个基本问题帮助限定要解决的关键问题或冲突。不同的限定关键问题的方法,引出不同的写作成果。如问why(为什么),则作者应研究理由、动机、目的等等。当然,强调个别基本问题并不完全忽略其他方面的关系。在问为什么的同时,必要时也应介绍事件是如何发生的等。不过这是属于次要的方面。重要的是选择问题,这可以认为是决定性步骤。这中间包含着艰苦细致的工作,也包含一定偶然因素和灵感。
(4)有目的地阅读和听取别人意见。 酝酿,构思过程中并不全然是冥思苦想。抽出部分时间阅读有关资料,将能从大量信息中受到启发,从而产生新的想法。必要时与周围的人进行交流,听取各种不同意见,有助于扩大眼界,拓开思路。为写作而阅读是一种特殊的阅读,是有着明确目标的阅读。阅读中接触到大量材料。材料中总是会有一些与题目有关的词,短语,思想或例子出现。这些都是丰富的思想之源。一个简单的短语有时可引出一连串有重要意义的思想。
(5)立体地用多种方式思考问题。 回答6个“w”的问题,虽然能够全面揭示问题的实质,但还仅限于一般地描写和分析,很少涉及周围环境的关系。为了更深入地了解内层的各种关系,还须使用比较,联系、应用、赞成或反对等其他方式。这些方式可设想为一个立体的六个侧面,如下图:

[img]http://images.blogcn.com/2006/9/9/8/writingybu,20060909142429.png[/img]

通过这样多种方式的思考,检验安排材料的新思路,有可能发现感兴趣的问题。
(三) 笔语的计划在第七章中曾介绍言语的计划问题。这里则侧重笔语的产生。由于笔语有充裕的时间进行准备,计划当更周密,可能涉及诸多方面,并形成文字,通常可称为题纲。
笔语的写作可大分为两种类型:
 一种是以事实为中心的写作,作者已经知道大部分内容,写作的任务在于明确而有效地呈示内容。
 另一种是思索性的以思想为中心的写作。这种写作是反身的,突然出现的。作者是在写作过程中发现许多内容。写作的任务是组织和表达这些内容。

当然,两种类型的写作并不是截然分开的,而是有些类似悬挂斜拉桥的两个主塔,桥面的每个部分实际上都在不同程度上共享双方的支持。各种体裁的文章也正是这样,总是与这两个方面相关,问题是以何者为主,分属不同的类型。
以事实为中心的写作,有大量材料需要简明扼要地阐释,应为写作草拟一个初步计划,使材料得到控制并为读者安排次序。以思想为中心的写作,在不知道内容将是什么时,也应有个暂时计划,需要有一种引导的意识和某些概念。也可先写个草稿,再作题纲,这种题纲有助于使内容更集中而有条理。如果进行以事实为中心的写作,题纲是很有用的工具。一种句式题纲有助于组合主要思想并排列次序。每一句都可能展开成为话语的段落。
许多作者喜欢按题纲进行写作,但不喜欢句式题纲这样正规和有限制。一种非正式题纲,只罗列要点,有着和句式题纲相同的作用。但不必都是完整的句子,可以是一个词或一个短语表示一个要点。可称为要点题纲。用这种题纲,可以有关信息和具体细节就要点展开。这种题纲容易勾勒,也比较灵活。
另有些作者喜欢使用一种主题句,把要表述的主要内容集中在一个完整的句子里,用以作为写作依据,帮助组织要点,保持适当的方向展开。这样的句子应是全面而简洁的。如欲选择主题句作为组织材料的主要方法,应记住两点:一是应投入足够的时间使句子相当全面。如不列入意图展开的要点或设定读者可循的方向,这种句子也就毫无意义。二是不宜以主题句为文章首句。应以此为指南,而不是介绍。通常可找到更有意义更精彩的句子来开头。.
不论用什么计划来展开写作,都应是灵活的。写作过程中述会出现新的思想火花,要求调节既定的题纲。计划是在选题和酝酿的基础上完成的一个腹稿或雏型。文章将从这里展开,丰富起来。显然,文章的形式和主要内容基本上都是写作前决定的。因而写作前的选题,酝酿和计划是最为关键的阶段。
对于外语写的教学说来,一个更突出的问题倒是,所有这些写作前的准备,究应在本族语基础上完成还是在外语基础上完成。实践中不难发现,许多中国学生在写外文时,是先写出汉文再翻译成外文。这实际上不是作文,而是翻译。同样是一篇外文作品,写出来与译出来不仅心理过程完全不同,结果也大多是有差别的,译文总有译文的痕迹。要达到炉火纯青的境界才能使译文与写作近似。外语作文教学应要求学生用外文写作,这就应当用外语思维,用外语写出题纲。

■ 写作过程中的心理活动
真正的写作总是要求考虑到写什么,给谁写和为什么写这样三个方面,否则就不成其为写作,而仅仅是练习。初学者往往很难随时注意到这三项要求。作文教学的初期应使学生形成习惯,经常考虑到意义,读者和目的。
(一) 考虑主题的意义 尽管在写作之前己作过一定的酝酿和计划,写作时仍必须首先考虑到自己的思想是否值得费时间写出来,是否值得让读者费时间阅读,所写的内容读者是否需要知道。这并不是说,每时每刻都要写新鲜玩意,或者总是去写那些严肃而复杂的问题。而是说,告诉读者的至少应该是为他们所感兴趣的,或者为他们提供有用的信息,或者为他们增加某种享受和乐趣,或者就他们熟悉的问题展示新的观点……如果为了参加考试而写一篇文章,所写内容应能显示自己对有关问题有足够的认识和自己的见解。如果是学习中的一篇试作,其意义则在于生动地叙述个人的经验等等。如果所写的内容是自己深知而别人急盼了解的,即使是很简单,很平常的事物,读者也会感到值得一读。反之,如果所写题目内容繁琐,连自己也感到厌烦,读者必然读来索然寡味。为此,作者随时都须斟酌所写每段,每句,甚至每个词到底有多大意义。考虑对有意义的内容如何更好的表达,与此同时,对意义不大的无关内容则不惜大加删削。
(二)考虑写作对象 写作时应十分明确是为谁而写。应考虑到,他们希望知道什么,他们知道些什么,他们会有些什么问题,他们读后会如何评价,采取什么态度。作者可想象某些人具有作为读者的一些重要特点。写作时常保持着这类读者的形象。这种形象可通过读者网络进行读者分析得到。读者网络是由一系列问题构成的。

读 者 网 络
I.谁将会读这篇文章?
是否已指定读者?
我能否指定读者?
谁是理想的读者?
II.读者会对题目感兴趣吗?愿意阅读吗?
他们会接受我的观点吗?为什么?
他们有能力按我的建议行动吗7.
他们愿意学习并接受劝告吗?,
III.读者对我的题目已经知道些什么?
我指望他们在这个问题上有些什么经验?
我能否使用专业用语?应该使用吗?
我所写的内容中有多少对他们是新的?
我怎样才能给他们新的信息或思想?.
IV.读者对这个问题抱何态度?
有何共同利益?
他们有些什么倾向?
何种方法可能会疏远他们?
他们的年龄,性别,社会地位,经济水平、教育程度对他们的阅读方式有何影响?
V.读者从阅读中希望得到什么?
他们会有哪些特殊问题要求我尽力回答?

通过回答这一系列问题,读者的情况已很清楚,正如已找到其坐标位置一样。从而产生了读者的形象。当然,这样许多的问题不可能在写作时逐一回答。但人们凭着自己的经验和知识,却能在瞬间实际上从回答个别问题而一般地了解许多问题的答案,从而迅速做出决定。为了适应读者的需要,作者在用词,造句,语气,表达方式等许多方面都有必要做出相应的变化。

(三)考虑写作目的 通常作文课上多数由教师指定写作目的。有时也让学习者选择自己的目的。无论是指定还是自选,写作时都应考虑到写作的目的,为什么而写。无目的的写作常常是浪费时间而没有实际意义。为了明确写作目的,同样也可使用目的网络来确定。
目 的 网 络
I.为什么写?
是否已指定写作目的?
指定的目的是什么?
能否自定目的?
对什么刺激做出反应?
II.希望通过写作完成什么?
使人高兴?
做出通知?
交流经验?
施加影响?
予以刺激?
引起情感反应?
进行劝告?
引起读者好感?
对读者的思考挑战?
强化现存思想或态度?
就某些问题予以开导?
上述某几种情况?
III 要读者读后采取什么行动?
参与共事?
表明经验?
考虑新观点?
不做什么?
IV.希望出现什么变化?
读者改变他们的行为?
读者接受建议?
读者改变或重新考虑他们的意见或态度?
不必有什么改变?,

通过回答这一系列问题,能够恰当地确定写作目的。从而使写作能有的放矢地顺利进行。
上面关于考虑写作对象和写作目的分别介绍,只是为了便于说明问题,有经验的作者都知道,在写作过程中,这二者实际上是不可分割的。写作对象在某种程度上也是由写作目的决定的。同样的,读者的某些特点也可能影响写作目的。因而实际上二者是同时考虑的。

(四) 组织和形成思想写作要把思想呈现在纸上,有必要把所有的思想集中起来。作者在写作时必须考虑到保持其写作统一的方法。应使读者获得完整的印象和方向感,并保证读者能跟上思路,不致茫然或混淆。最好不让读者为理解意义而反复捉摸。 应使读者读后感到满意。通常可采取以下策略帮助组织思想:
1) 组织思路,顺应读者的期待。文章大都有着开始部分、中间部分和结束部分。读者期待开始部分介绍主题,中间部分进行展开,结束部分适当概括并强化某些主要论点。一般读者倾向于在阅读中期待这样的结构。作者不宜忽视这种期待。开端就应展示全文的计划,促使读者继续阅读。这种结构的基本形式是:
1.序言,2.正文,3.结论。
有时本文中仅仅提出一种论点还不够,有必要提出正反两种观点。这就构成:
1. 序言, 2.正面观点,3.反面观点;4.结论。
对解说文而言,则往往并不需要序言介绍。可以是:
1. 第一事件,2.第二事件, 3.第三事件,4.第四事件,5.结论。
一般记叙文都可以是:
1. 开端,2.展开;3.结束。

总之,作者可按任何设计来安排自己的文章,只要能把自己想到的告知读者。这就要求使用一些简单的陈述和过渡的短语、段落,如英语中的First of a11;On the other side of the issue; Next等,来承上启下,体现计划中的路标作用。如果作者不努力组织思路,读者就会随意强加一种设计,曲解文章的意思。当他们发现作者所写内容未能满足其最初估计时,会责怪作者使之造成混乱。不要认为组织思路是件小事,这是基础。

2) 找出控制的思考类型人们是通过不同类型的过程来思考的。作者有时使用这些类型作为关于主题的思考方法。视主题与思考类型交织的结果而产生材料。最常用的思考类型是:描写、解说、处理、分类、定义、比较因果、描述环境、证明等。这些类型可为适应主题形成文章提供逻辑的构思。例如,可使用定义和因果,先对问题予以限定,然后分析原因和后果。这就应是:
1.序言; 2.对问题定义,3.分析原因;4.分析后果;5.做出建议。
另外,也还可以使用解决问题类型或问答类型。而最有用的类型应是比较。写作中运用比较类型通常有两种基本设计:一种是整体比较,即先就某一问题或对象陈述各种特征,然后就另一问题或对象陈述各种特征,最后做出结论,另一种是分项比较,即先就某一特征对两个问题或对象进行比较,然后就另一特征进行比较,依次就各种特征进行比较,最后做出结论。作者无论使用何种思考类型,都能接通读者熟悉的自然的思维过程,并给予他们一种方向感,帮助他们跟上作者的思路。
3) 做出许诺和应答 另一使作者和读者一致的重要策略,几乎对任何文章都适用,那就是许诺和应答。作者使用这种策略,在文章起始部分对读者自觉地作出许诺,并以此作为展开其余部分的基础。许诺可以是直接的也可以是间接的。在直接许诺中,作者可以陈述文中提到的问题开始写作。这种公开的陈述就是许诺,因为提出问题,要求作者为满足读者的期待而进行解释并予展开。另一种直接许诺可采取激起争论的问题形式,介绍作者欲提到的问题。读者知道这里不是做出简单的回答,而是可以期待读到更多关于争论的内容。间接许诺可采取轶事或叙述的形式。以特定的开场引起读者的希冀,使之在文中对引人注目的事件有更多的发现。这种开场的重要作用在于为读者预示内容。读者在开始阅读时要知道的是期望什么,因此这样有助于他们集中注意于主要思想内容。同时他们也不愿导致在阅读时感到失望。作者也已或明或暗地对他们做出了许诺,建立默契,有责任予以实现。因而作者在写作时还应记住“应答”,“执行”和“报偿”。
4) 组块内的组织 即使作者已确定文章的类型和方向,也还必须继续组织和形成思想。因为读者在阅读时有大量信息须继续分组处理,从而每个部分都须设计。如果作者不为读者提供方向,他们就会按自己的思路前进,或认为文章是不连贯的。作者不应随机地简单提供思想。即便是举几个例子,也自然会有个顺序问题,应明确何者在前,何者在后,何者最为重要。在一个组块中(组块可以是短文中的一个段落,或者长作品中的一个部分)作者必须强加一个设计:简单的可以是一个顺序(first,second, third),复杂的可以是一个完整思考类型(cause and effect)。这种小范围的组织策略使作者能够有效地表达思想。在短文中,可将重要的观点;事实或论据置于最受注意的部分,如段落的开始;部分或结束部分,予以强调;关键的思想可用强调其重要性的短语如“the chief issue,however,is”,“the most significant development”等来出示。在较长的作品中,可将新思想直接放在一个部分之首,或加小标题等,予以突出。还应考虑到,总是最后读到的部分记忆得最好,结束处总应是给读者留下最深印象的内容。最后还应考虑比例的重要性。如果用很大篇幅去讨论一个小问题,而以很小的篇幅去讨论重大的问题,读者很容易把小问题认为是大问题。如果序言占去三分之二的篇幅,这已不是序言,如果结论只是平淡的一句话,可能是把重要的文章视为不屑一顾。一句话,应了解读者不仅对作者所写内容,而且对作者怎样写作出反应。
5) 使用过渡的词或短语 文中的许多思想,可用各种手段连接起来。其中最常用的应是过渡的词或短语。这些挂钩和导向信号保持着写作的连贯,产生思想流畅的印象。过渡词为结构完整服务。最普通的英语过渡词和短语按其作用分列如下:

likewise, at the same time, as regards, as to/as for, regarding
similarly, meanwhile, with reference to, concerning, talking of
in the same way, incidentally, to resume, as follows, including
however, equally, in comparison with, in the same way, in contrast to
instead, on the contrary, in contrast, despite, at the same time
nevertheless, even though, regardless of
although, notwithstanding, still
in spite of, while
on the other hand
not only, yet

moreover, that is to say, furthermore, what is more, alternatively
in addition to, besides, additionally, in other words, instead of
for example, equally important, last but not least, rather than
not…but, either…or, neither…nor, whether…or not, above all, indeed

hence, because (of), since, for, accordingly, due to, owing to, thanks to
consequently, next, now that, so long as, on account of, so that,
therefore, therefore, the fact that, all in all, briefly, in conclusion,
as a result of, as a result, in summary, to sum up, in all, in short,
thus, on the whole, in all, in short, in brief, , in a word, in terms, in sum,
to summarize, to conclude

as a matter of fact, as well, frankly speaking
in this case, or else, that is, in other words that is to say
otherwise, to put it more precisely,
if so, that implies, under no circumstances
subsequently, above all, afterwards, eventually, finally, furthermore
after, last but not least, to conclude, lastly, in the end
finally
first, second 等

这些都是外部的连接手段,加上因果,比较等类型所体现的内部连接手段,都是避免写作中的不连贯和不规范所必需的。为使文章流畅,改善连接和过渡,有必要充分积累常用的过渡词,通过练习而熟练使用。当然,其他手段还很多,甚至标点符号也应善于使用。
综上所述,外语教师是在学生已掌握外语书写能力和基本的造句能力基础上,安排作文教学。作文教学应与翻译教学区别开来。作文教学中应要求学生运用外语知识,技能,即按照外语的语法,修辞规则组织外语语言材料来书面地表达思想。教学中教师应指导学生做好写作前的酝酿、构思和计划,重视写作中的早路导向,并十分注意尊重所学语言的言语习惯,掌握各种连接过渡的手段,使读者能容易地了解甚至接受作者的思想。写作是一个自觉的过程,自始至终要求作者积极思考。

西方传统修辞学(补充) [原] [转] [原]

[img]http://images.blogcn.com/2006/9/9/8/writingybu,2006090914179.gif[/img]
[img]http://images.blogcn.com/2006/9/9/8/writingybu,20060909141752.jpg[/img]
[img]http://images.blogcn.com/2006/9/9/8/writingybu,20060909141824.png[/img]
[img]http://images.blogcn.com/2006/9/9/8/writingybu,20060909141940.jpg[/img]
[img]http://images.blogcn.com/2006/9/9/8/writingybu,20060909142055.gif[/img]
 古罗马时期有西塞罗、昆体良(Quintillian,35?-96?)

 中世纪有主教奥古斯丁(Augustine,354-430)《忏悔录》和波伊提乌(Boethius,480-524)《古典修辞学发凡》)

 文艺复兴时期的修辞学最明显的特点,就是对修辞格的研究,许多修辞学的术语也渐渐进入刚刚兴起的(非拉丁语)本国语语法中,如冒号(colon)、逗号(comma)、撇号(apostrophe)和括号(parenthesis)等,非公开场合言语活动的社会情景倒是进入了修辞学研究的领域,如书信写作的艺术。16世纪有法莫道不消魂国哲学家拉姆斯(Peter Ramus, 1515-1572,“风格”、“记诵”和“发表” )后来,拉姆斯式的辩证法观念被以归纳法为主导的新的科学方法所推翻;17世纪之交,弗朗西斯•培根(Francis Bacon,1561-1626)提出三段论不能发现任何新知识的观点。总的说来,从16世纪末开始,修辞学的处境受到当时某些很流行的观念的影响,即修辞学不过是遣词造句、明喻暗喻之类的雕琢而已,不值得认真研究。

 近代修辞学。语言能不能成为真理之中性的承载体? 约翰•洛克(John Locke,1632—1704)也对这个问题苦思冥想过。洛克认为,人类语言必须使用概括归纳,不然的话,词汇就会与大干世界的万物一样无限地繁衍增长,直到变得太繁杂和笨拙,使用起来极不方便。普遍共性实际上是不存在的:它们只是一种观念,是人们通过观察所看到的某些相似性而已。洛克似乎肯定,先有普遍的概念(才有具体的概念),而普遍概念在某种意义上是人们用语言创造出来的。他主张,如果约束修辞上的过分华丽修饰,语言也许还有可能与所表述的东西更接近些,至少是更接近人们对那些东西的清楚的概念。

18世纪初意大利哲学家、修辞学教授维科 (Giambattista Vico,1668—1744)是当时对科学在认识论上优越地位发出挑战的为数不多的学者之一。维科认为,著名哲学家笛卡尔(Rene Descartes,1596--1650)的方法与修辞学一样,都依赖于盖然性(probability)和信念(belief),而不是绝对真理(absolute truth)的证实。

培根已经提出了修辞学与认识论之间争议较小的联系,那就是一个新的心理学体系。修辞学可以观察人的心理结构,进而提高交流的效果,因为修辞学说到底,涉及心智的全部官能。它自然要研究探讨如何更加有效地研究这些心智官能。另外,通过采用一种科学的态度来研究语言,修辞学就可以与强大的、亦可成为危险敌人的科学领域结成盟军。因而,18世纪的修辞学家们十分崇尚“清晰”的风格和“自然”的结构,倾向于建立一种在诉诸人的理智和情感时以“人的本性”为准绳的修辞学理论。培根把心智的某一具体的官能与某种具体的写作样式(文体)挂上钩:哲学与理性、历史与记忆、文学与想象力等。

乔治•坎贝尔 (George Campbell,1719—1796)在18世纪末把培根的官能与写作样式的分类扩大。他认为,科学论证只是交流的一种方法,只诉诸于一种心智的官能——理性,而且更喜欢用一种清晰的风格。他进一步强调,论证有赖于对此前论证、证据和公理的相信。在坎贝尔看来,科学与修辞学都使用一系列依赖于盖然性的推理手段,所以,它们不是两个截然不同的学科。修辞学不仅可以把理性,而且可以把人的心智的各个官能都阐述清楚,因为修辞学研究人的情感、激情、性格等,以期影响它们。

由于培根、坎贝尔等都强调修辞学的心理因素,修辞学转而注重对言语“普遍”模式的研究,这些模式所针对的对象不是听众,而是心智的官能。修辞学与心理学薄雾浓云愁永昼联系如此紧密,以至到了19世纪,著名的心理学家亚里山大•贝恩(Alexander Bain,1818—1903)不仅教修辞学,而且编撰了写作的教科书。贝恩认为,各种修辞格反映了大脑在进行比较、对比和联想时的运作,而言语交流的模式(modes of discourse,描述、叙述、阐述、论辩和诗歌等)则和心智的各种官能相对应。在贝恩看来,创造(invention)与构理(arrangement)或多或少是由言语模式的性质决定的。譬如,描述就是把描述对象的各个部分呈现得秩序井然,叙述则是按时间顺序展现事件,等等。就论辩而言,创造就是把对论题的认知与三段式逻辑推理结合起来。至于风格,除了带有想象成分的文学作品外,仍然是以清晰为标准。

到了19世纪末,心理学发生巨大变化,主要当然是因为弗洛伊德(Sigmund Freud,1856—1939)学说的影响。所以,修辞学继续依赖较老一些的贝恩的心理学来研究言语诉诸的结构。
另外,19世纪大学的课程设置增设了大量新的科目,以适应科学、技术、商业的需要和缓解大众教育的压力。修辞学在课程设置中曾经一直占据大量时间,现在,来自其他学科的竞争迫使修辞学退缩,范畴渐渐缩小集中于写作上。

2. Modern Western Rhetoric and Writing Theories

纵观20世纪,许多修辞学家提出了以修辞为基础的有关意义。(meaning)、价值(value)、意图(intention)和知识(knowledge)的理论,修辞学得到长足的发展。
理查兹(I. A. Richards, 1893-1979)认为修辞学可以提供一个研究意义的方法,这个方法能够纠正“固有意义的谬误”(“proper meaning fallacy”),即在词语与它们所代表的事物或观念之间有一个直接的联系。在他看来,修辞学向人们展示,意义是由语境决定的。词语只有在言语交流中才有意义(而不是在词典里),而言语交流只有对于那些能够把它当前的使用与此前使用的经验联系起来加以理解的人才有意义。因而,理查兹从广义上把修辞学定义为对交流与理解的研究。

伯克(Kenneth Burke, 1897-1995)也是沿着大致相同的方向研究的。他认为,所有不同的言语使用都是为了在某种程度上使人产生动机,因而,我们应该通过对意图和效果的研究来寻找语义。语言是人类交流的一种形式,它需要有一个具有某种目的的动原(agent)、一个行动的场面(scene)、一个修辞策略(strategy)和一篇业已完成的演讲和文稿。伯克认为,用这种“戏剧”眼光来看言语交流,语言就是有动机的,也就是修辞性的。伯克还研究言语交流所具有的推崇与社区的价值保持一致的意识形态的功能。在他的研究中,修辞学与政治学、心理学、社会学、宗教和美学对人类行为的研究融合成了一体。

70年代文学评论界的读者反应(reader-response,亦称接受美学)试图描述发生在读者身上的心理过程或效果,但却对读者的解读是否正确不做评判。这类批评家们一般把自己的研究方法看成对语境是敏感的,但不是修辞性的。不过,读者反应派以及其他反对严格的形式主义方法的学派(如致力于从历史和意识形态的环境来研究文学的马克思主义文学批评)所坚持的一个原则是:文学是修辞性言语交流的一种形式,它的解读依赖于环境、(读者)反应以及作品文本的结构。这也是米开尔•巴克赫廷(Mikhail Bakhtin, 1895-1975, 《马克思主义与语言哲学》)所持的立场,他的学说这些年来越来越流行。

对佩雷尔曼(Chaim Perelman, 1912-1984)来说,修辞学是形式逻辑以外研究实用推理的另一个强有力、而且必要的方法。在他看来,一旦离开其狭小而抽象的领域,形式逻辑就毫无用处。他不赞成笛卡尔的观点,即盖然性的论辩是非理性的,它不产生绝对真理(absolute truth),因而不值得发展。他认为,盖然性的论辩是指导我们生活的法则、道德和实事性决定的基础。修辞学可以告诉我们知识与信服是如何通过基于盖然推理、经验和已经建立的习惯的论辩而形成的。另外,从修辞学的角度来看知识,可以提醒人们警惕这么一种声明,即某些知识是绝对的,不容争辩的。正如一些科学哲学家所承认或辩论的那样,即使在科学领域,知识也是通过持有共同价值和观念的社会群体内部的论辩才形成的。
修辞学理论沿着这些方向发展至今,已经把着重点放在知识的来源和地位上。虽然巴克赫廷、傅科(Michel Foucault, 1926-1984)、德里达(Jacques Derrida, 1930-)等哲学家的领域不是修辞学,却通过他们对语言以及语言与知识之关系的重要的研究而对现、当代修辞学产生影响。傅科继尼采之后,对语言是知识之被动的传动载体的观点发起攻击。他认为,言语交流是知识与权力之网络上的一部分,该网络受到带有繁杂的互动和动机的各种学科和社会公共机构(institutions,如教育、教会、文化、司佳节又重阳法等机构)的制约。对某种知识发表议论的权威来自社会公共机构的认可;推理是随着那些被接受的参照模式和具体学科所确认的程序的变化而波动的;而社会公共机构之经久不衰以及它们的特权则有赖于通过言语交流本身来维持和实施的权力。傅科把语言看成是有意图的、有威力的、并卷入知识的产生和使用过程中,这样,他就提出了一个与现代修辞学完全一致的新的理论。
对于知识的地位以及它与语言的关系的关注当然不局限于修辞和哲学领域。在许多学者看来,科学知识的发展似乎不是通过理性的观察和事实的积攒,而是通过论辩。另外,用现代观点来说,无意识的心理是一种带有说服性的言语交流,这样,心理分析也就变成了修辞批评的一种形式。一个在几乎所有的学科里回荡的结论是:学识的增长来自解释,学科的发展来自论辩,团体社区的协调来自言语交流,意识形态是(用语言来)说服的结构,而所谓真实则是随着使用语言的方法的变化而变动的。
人文科学甚或自然科学所提出的认识论的问题指出了研究下述问题的需要:言语交流、言语样式、言语交流的构成和言语交流的社区团体、言语交流的戏剧性场面、意识的语言构成、以及知识之修辞构成等。当代修辞学家所研究的正是这些课题。按照目前的修辞学理论,语言总是以说服为目的的,总是充满了伦理和意识形态的色彩。韦弗认为,语言是说教的。它并不首先是个心理体系,而是一个社会体系,它的根基不是语言学,而是对话。修辞学与意义可以说是同义词,因为意义存在于使用和语境中,而不是词汇本身。知识和相信是说服的产物,说服的目的在于寻求使本来需要论辩的东西显得很自然,使立场观点变成已经被接受了的前提,而修辞学的责任就是揭示这些带有浓厚的意识形态色彩的运作。在检查自己的意识形态运作的同时,修辞学也在反省自己的经典库,特别是在其发展中是如何排挤妇女和少数民族的。这些都是修辞学所关注的新问题。
修辞学对认识论和意识形态的关注并非完全是新的发展。它从一开始就一直对政治行动和对知识的寻求十分关注。修辞学的历史就是一部努力理解言语交流与知识、言语交流及其效果、语言和经验之关系的长篇故事,而20世纪的修辞学所研究的范畴已经不仅仅是历史调查、系统分析、教学实践和理论探索等,而是一个大大超越学科界限的学术课题。

西方修辞学的发展

按照惯例,西方修辞学的发展可分为5个时期:
[img]http://images.blogcn.com/2006/8/2/1/writingybu,2006080201956.jpg[/img]

传统西方修辞学关注的是演讲者为影响和说服听者(众)所应遵循的各种原则和采用的技巧,现代西方修辞学则把关注的侧重点转向听者(众)或读者,它已经很少被看作仅仅是演讲术(oratory)或修辞技巧的学说,而是更多地被看作人类话语研究的一个不可分割的重要组成部分。
* Difference between Rhetoric and Figures of Speech
The word rhetoric was once primarily the name of an important branch of philosophy and an art deserving of serious study. In recent years the word has come to be used chiefly in a pejorative sense to refer to inflated language and pomposity. Deprecation of the term may result from a modern linguistic Puritanism, which holds that language used in legitimate persuasion should be plain and free of artifice—itself a tendentious rhetorical doctrine, though not often recognized as such. But many writers still prefer to bear in mind the traditional meanings of the word. Thus, according to the newer use of the term, the phrase empty rhetoric, as in the politicians talk about solutions, but they usually offer only empty rhetoric, might be construed as redundant. But in fact only 35 percent of the Usage Panel judged this example to be redundant. Presumably, it can be maintained that rhetoric can be other than empty.
Figure: a written or printed symbol representing something other than a letter, especially a number.
(Generally speaking, it was Aristotle who, in the 4th century B. C, first defined rhetoric as the art of persuasion. In Athens, then the centre of western civilization, great orators(演讲者), by exercising their rhetoric, gained following and support, and, eventually, political power. Later, for quite some time actually, the art of expressing oneself well came to be understood as the ability to write or speak well in ornate, showy language. Today there are still some people who equate rhetoric to the, adoption of stylistic devices or the use of figures of speech in speech or writing.
Nowadays, however, with the quickened tempo of life, the increased stress on efficiency and efficacy, and the ascendance of the idea that languages are means of communication, more and more people have come to regard rhetoric as the art of effective communication. The art of expressing oneself well has come to be regarded as the ability to get across one's ideas clearly. Furthermore, rhetoric has come to be connected more with writing than with speech, and more with prose writing than with verse. It is in line with this current view that we, in this course, will treat English rhetoric as the art of effective communication through writing rather than speaking. Naturally, such a course deals with the choice of words, the structuring of sentences, the organization of paragraphs, and the arrangement of the whole essay.)

[img]http://images.blogcn.com/2006/8/2/1/writingybu,200608020235.jpg[/img]

西方古典修辞学的鼻祖首推亚里士多德(Aristotle,公元前384-322),他的《修辞学》(Rhetoric)可以说是西方修辞学的奠基之作,他集中了他生活时代修辞学研究和教学的大成,又开拓了修辞学研究的新天地。亚氏把修辞学定义为发现可以用来就任何论题进行说服之手段的艺术。这门发现的艺术,需要修辞者既要系统地调查他所面对的情景,又要寻找自身内在处理这个情景的才智和谋略。另外,修辞者还要调查听众,不仅要研究他们的具体文化的倾向性,还要研究他们所受年龄和社会地位制约的情感。在寻找自身内在的才智和谋略时,修辞者应该使用启发法(heuristics),如比较对照普遍概念(common topic)等,以产生和构造盖然的论辩(probable arguments)。修辞者应该选择最佳论辩,用最有效的顺序(order)来组织安排他们,并在风格(style)上进行修饰,选择最贴切的词汇,以表达安排得体的论辩。

对亚里士多德而言,柏拉图(Plato, 公元前428-347, Gorgias《高尔吉亚》和Phaedrus《费德鲁斯》)所追求的那种绝对真理只有通过科学论证才能获得。

Plato: [Rhetoric] is the "art of enchanting the soul." (The art of winning the soul by discourse.)

Aristotle: Rhetoric is "the faculty of discovering in any particular case all of the available means of persuasion."

按照亚氏的体系,公共演说依其情景的不同可以被分为三大类:
1) 法律演说(legal oration):目的在于影响对过去某一活动的判断;
2) 政治演说(political oration):目的在于说服和影响人们在未来去从事某项活动;
3) 仪式性演说(ceremony oration):目的在于褒、贬当前的某种局势或加强人们对局势的共同看法和信念。
后来人们又融入了布道(sermon)、书信以及聊天等所有以说服为目的言语行为。
 听众分析:亚里士多德认为,人总是在谋求自身的利益,而不同的人对于什么是自身的利益看法不一。他也总是从最普遍意义(common topics)的角度来解释。听众分析就是研究有可能构成某种听众群体的不同人们的心理和道德价值取向。对听众的分析,主要是为了帮助确定用什么手段来诉诸他们的情感,而逻辑是不受制于变化多端的具体情景的最有效的手段之一。
 演讲的准备:亚里士多德把该过程分为5个阶段:

[img]http://images.blogcn.com/2006/8/2/1/writingybu,2006080202454.jpg[/img]

(古罗马时期的西塞罗 Cicero,公元前106-43,《论创造》(De Inventione))
Cicero: "Rhetoric is one great art comprised of five lesser arts: inventio, dispositio, elocutio, memoria, and pronunciatio. "Rhetoric is "speech designed to persuade.

关于西塞罗:西塞罗(Marcus Tullius Cicero,公元前106年——前43年)是位杰出的散文作家和才干超群的政治家,也是雄辨教育的积极倡导者。其著作《雄辩学》是古代有关雄辩教育的最重要的著作之一。他出身于富有的骑士家庭,自幼受到了良好的教育,先后在著名的修辞学家、法学家以及斯多葛派所办的学校中求学。曾接受过军事训练,服过兵役。最后按照当时罗马上层社会的教育时尚,到雅典的哲学学校游学两年。回国后,逐渐步入政坛,凭其广博的学识、雄辩的口才以及纵横捭阖的政治手腕而步步高升,当上了国家的执政官。在政治上,西塞罗比较保守,当共和国走到了末路时,他也走完了自己的人生旅程。罗马后三头执政时清洗元老院,西塞罗出逃未遂而遭到杀身之祸。
  西塞罗在教育上的最大贡献是他提出了雄辩家教育的理论。雄辩术起源于希腊,在罗马共和时期的政治生活和社会生活中作用甚大。它既是争取民众、击败政敌的工具;又是歌有暗香盈袖功颂有暗香盈袖德、取悦各方的手段;还是诉讼争斗、法庭辩护的途径,后来便逐渐演变成罗马学校中的主要课程。到了共和末期,随着共和制的解体,雄辩术的重要性就大大降低了。帝国时期更是没有它存在的土壤,但它的影响犹存,雄辩家成了有教养的罗马人的代名词。西塞罗的雄辩教育理论成为当时以及后来100多年中的权威性观点。西塞罗认为,作为一个雄辩家必须能够就眼前的任何需要用语言艺术阐述的问题进行得体而审慎的演说,同时伴以规定的模式,恰当的姿态,并脱离讲稿。具体来讲,雄辩家与普通人有三个方面的不同:首先,是与一般能说会道的人不同。后者只是在大庭广众之中能清楚地表达思想,而雄辩家则可以就任何问题发表生动的演说;其次,雄辩家比各专业人才在演讲方面更出色,更能说服人;再者,雄辩家拥有专门的雄辩技巧。

[img]http://images.blogcn.com/2006/8/2/1/writingybu,200608020307.jpg[/img]

上述由5个成分构成的系统至今仍然是修辞学中的基础。演讲者一般得依照这5个过程来准备和发表演讲。虽然演讲者在整个过程中的某一个阶段所用的具体手段视具体演讲的情景而定,但这 5个阶段必须都到位,才能保证一整套的诉诸手段得到充分应用,达到说服的目的。

补充:
亚里士多德在证明(demonstration)、辩证(dialectic)和修辞(rhetoric)以及这3种不同手段所获得的认知之间划有重要的界限。证明所揭示的是自然世界中颠扑不破的真理(unalterable truths);辩证则是用严密的演绎推理的逻辑来寻求证据充分(但没有证实)的盖然真理(probable truths),所探索的是不可能有绝对确定性答案的人类事务或哲学中的问题;修辞也是在人类事务的范畴里寻求证据充分的盖然真理,所依赖的不仅是通过证明和辩证而获得的认知,而且包括传统或普遍接受的智慧以及诸如上述所提到的普通概念那样的具有说服作用的各种手段。
理性诉诸的另一种形式是三段论省略式(enthymeme)。他和辩证时所用的三段式(syllogism)一样,从一个大前提而演绎出一个结论来,所不同之处在于,三段式中的大前提应该是真实的(true),因而,所得出的结论也是必然的,而在三段论省略式中,大前提只是很有可能或盖然的(probable),因而,所得出的结论具有试探性和推测性(tentative)。

亚里士多德认为,修辞者所发现或创造的论辩要取得说服的效果,首先就得诉诸听众的理性(logos)、情感(pathos)和伦理(ethos)的。情感诉诸的目的是寻求听众在感情上与演讲者保持一致,譬如,激发听众对一个打算入侵的敌对国家的愤怒等。

例如:[b]Pearl Harbor Address to the Nation [/b]By President Franklin D. Roosevelt
The attack yesterday on the Hawaiian Islands has caused severe damage to American naval and military forces. I regret to tell you that very many American lives have been lost. In addition, American ships have been reported torpedoed on the high seas between San Francisco and Honolulu.
Yesterday, the Japanese government also launched an attack against Malaya.
Last night, Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong.
Last night, Japanese forces attacked Guam.
Last night, Japanese forces attacked the Philippine Islands.
Last night, the Japanese attacked Wake Island.
And this morning, the Japanese attacked Midway Island.

[img]http://images.blogcn.com/2006/8/2/1/writingybu,2006080203855.jpg[/img]

:em21:

第一章 介绍写作理论与方法

Chapter I INTRODUCTION


 


“以史为镜,可以知兴衰”


Looking into the histories you foresee the destiny of your nation.


――魏征


A.      Western Writing Theories


1.       Classic Western Rhetoric


What is rhetoric?


 


Ÿ      修辞学是研究英语表达以达到交际目的的艺术和科学。(Rhetoric is the art and science that do research on the expression in order to do effective communication)(祁寿华,《西方写作理论、教学与实践》 Western Writing Theories, Pedagogies, and Practices, 2000: 3,


Ÿ     
Rhetoric consists of the study of the principles governing the clear, forceful, and elegant expression of thoughts.”(葛传槼,《英语写作》The Writing of English, 1985: 3)


 


*补充:


Plato:[Rhetoric] is the "art of enchanting the soul." (The art of winning the soul by discourse.)


Aristotle: Rhetoric is "the faculty of discovering in any particular case all of the available means of persuasion."


Cicero: "Rhetoric is one great art comprised of five lesser arts: inventio, dispositio, elocutio, memoria, and pronunciatio. "Rhetoric is "speech designed to persuade."


Quintillian: "Rhetoric is the art of speaking well."


Francis Bacon: The duty and office of rhetoric is to apply reason to imagination for the better moving of the will.


George Campbell:[Rhetoric] is that art or talent by which discourse is adapted to its end.The four ends of discourse are to enlighten the understanding, please the imagination, move the passion, and influence the will.


I. A. Richards: Rhetoric is the study of misunderstandings and their remedies.


Richard Weaver: Rhetoric is that "which creates an informed appetition for the good."


Erika Lindemann: "Rhetoric is a form of reasoning about probabilities, based on assumptions people share as members of a community."


Philip Johnson: "Rhetoric is the art of framing an argument so that it can be appreciated by an audience."


Andrea Lunsford: "Rhetoric is the art, practice, and study of human communication."


Kenneth Burke: The most characteristic concern of rhetoric [is] the manipulation of men's beliefs for political ends....the basic function of rhetoric [is] the use of words by human agents to form attitudes or to induce actions in other human agents.


 


西方的修辞学起源于古希腊时期。古希腊社会是一种民瑞脑消金兽主社会的雏形,公共场合的演讲和辩论十分盛行。在当时,修辞学意味着演讲术的实践和演讲文稿的准备的方法。


从人类浩瀚的交流活动中,修辞学选出以说服(persuasion)为最终目的的口头和书面交流活动作为研究对象,又把作为研究对象的语言交流活动进行分类,从结构和目的的角度出发,对每一类语言交流活动进行分析,确定成功进行每一类语言交流活动的手段。为了达到研究的目的,修辞学推崇规范语言活动的准则,并把艺术地使用语言的方法进行分类。它提示人们如何寻找证据和论证,提出准确推理的规则,并把人的心智分为不同的官能(faculties),这样,在演讲时,可以从逻辑上和心理上诉诸听众的心智。


 

谈谈怎样才能学好写作

[img]http://images.blogcn.com/2006/7/22/9/writingybu,20060722175059.jpg[/img]
:em222:
Composition is the art or practice of writing. In other words, it is the art or practice of saying something in written words. You simply cannot learn composition if you always have nothing to say. Since you are bent upon learning it, you must find something to say. When you come to think about it, it is not at all difficult to find something to say. You may find it from a great many sources, the most common of which are perhaps personal experience, observation, conversation, and reading.

扎实的语言基本功是首先要具备的条件。这包括对语法(句法和词法)及基本词汇用法的掌握。如有不太清楚的地方,应通过阅读语法书和查词典来逐步解决。
多读书是极为重要的。既要读英文书,也要读中文书;既要读文艺作品,也要读知识性著作。通过读书来了解社会与人生,扩大知识面,丰富思想与感情,增进观察与分析的能力。在读书时应注意和研究书的内容,同时也应适当注意作者的写作方法,吸取有用的语言。在日常生活中,也应养成观察与分析的习惯,遇事问个“为什么?”如果经常这样做,就会使自己的思路敏捷,思想有深度。多读书加上多观察、多分析,在写作文时便不会苦于找不到材料,无话可说。
写的时候应该首先考虑内容问题,问问自己“写什么”,其次考虑如何组织材料或观点,从何处开始,到何处结束,也就是问问自己“怎样写”。
在语言的使用上,应记住的一个原则是:能恰当表达思想的语言就是好的语言,也就是应该用的语言。所以不必总是追求某一类型的语言,如文雅的、艰深的、浅易的,或俚俗的。不过对学习者来说,应先学会使用英语的核心部分,即最常用的语言。
写完初稿后还要再三斟酌,反复修改,一直改到自己感到满意时为止。在抄好或打好后,仔细检查是不可缺少的一步,以求不漏掉任何一个自己可以改正的错误。
正如前面所说,这样认真地写,既锤炼了自己的语言,又培养了好的作风。
“功夫不负苦心人。”只要肯下工夫,必然取得进步。

(以下参考俞敏洪(新东方)谈如何提高写作能力)

一.对出国和出国后学习、生活的重要性
美国人在近几年发现好多中国留学生虽然GRE分数非常高,写作水平却很低,在以后的学习中遇到了许多麻烦,也造成了教授很大的困扰。所以他们开始认为GRE分数并不能完全代表 一个学生的英文水平。
事实上,在国外,只有两种水平能够使你顺利的生存下去,一是听和说的水平,另一个就 是写作水平。
中国学生普遍语法水平都非常高,但这只是在做语法题时。而在文章里,一句话却能犯5、6个语法错误。所以美国普林斯顿考试的改革,几乎有1/3的要点是针对外国学生,尤其是越来越多的中国大陆考生来设计的。比如,到明年5月份TOEFL考试机考之后,要把作文中的语法错误算在语法分中。外国教授不需要你到那边再练习写作能力,他要求你去之前练好写作。
GRE考试作文2篇,并且是美国所有作文考试中最长的。别的都是半个小时写完,GRE则要求45分钟,所以它在质量和长度上的要求就更高。GRE作文不只通过普林斯顿打分,而且,还可以直接送到教授的桌上。教授可以把你的作文和你的personal statement进行对照。作用是和你的personal statement进行参照,看看你的personal statement是不是自己写的,同时也评判你的写作水平,当然这也是决定你能不能得到奖学金的重要标准。

二.怎样才能切实提高写作能力。
作文的写作在美国人心目中包括几个部分。要想写好作文,需要三大能力: 1.语言能力 2.逻辑思路能力 3.修辞学的能力
1.语言能力 语言能力的提高是一个反复练习的过程。它包括听说的能力、阅读词汇和写 作能力。写作能力又涉及到两个能力:用词的能力和句子结构的能力。 用词能力指的是对 同一种内容,你可以有不同的表达方式。如果你在一篇文章中反复的出现同一个词,而没 有可以替换的,那你的分数一定不会高。(当没有GRE作文考试时。美国教授评判你写作能 力的标准就是你的书面材料。) 事实上,单词量并能不代表你的写作水平。单词就象是一 块块的砖,但是如果你想建一幢大楼,只有材料是不够的,你还需要一个杰出的设计师。 虽然英语的章法非常严格,但是它需要你的变化。也就是句子结构的能力更重要。普林斯 顿要求你在句法上要有变化。因为GRE作文要求体现复杂性和思想性。好多同学看到一个结 构都不知道是什么,更别提让他写出来了。
是不是去分析句子结构就能写出好文章呢?NO。不需要去研究句子结构,只要做到我说的 两件事。下面我就讲一下对于提高用词能力和句子结构能力的两大要素:
*背诵、练习的多了,你的笔头上就会自然流露出句子结构。语言是运载思想的工具。我在大学2年级的时候,背过新概念英语的2、3、4册。新东方有一个我唯一非常佩服的学 员,他现在已经从DUKE毕业了。他也是背新概念英语的2、3、4册,但是他背得非常熟练, 可以说是倒背如流,对每篇文章都非常熟悉。以他这样的水平,TOEFL高分是没问题,GRE 考了2350分。
最有意思的是,到DUKE后的第一个星期,每个中国学生都要写论文。他写了之后交给教授,教授看后对他说,你这个论文是剽窃的,因为我从事了20年的教学,从来没有看到中国学生能写出这么漂亮文章的。你有没有证据可以证明这是你自己写的?他说我现在不拿什么证据,但是我能背100篇文章,可以背给你听听。然后他就背了两篇文章,背了之后, 他说,那个教授号啕大哭起来了。他没想到在遥远中国的一个角落里有居然有人能把那么难的文章、那么优美的文章,背的这么炉火纯青,真让人很感动。
就是这个学生的例子促使我编了现在那本英文现代文选。所以我建议大家如果是针对GRE作 文,要背的话,可以选择新概念英语第三册的后30篇。如果还想背更多的,可以选择我和 包凡一老师编的现代英语背诵文选,那里面的句子难度刚好相当。80篇中选你最喜欢的30 篇就行了。有这30篇垫底,就足够了。剩下的就是自己写了。但是要背到怎么熟练呢,就是任意选一篇就能倒背如流。
* 模仿别人的优秀文章写有两种方式。有些同学天天写,但是水平和一年前没有什么长 进。所以光靠自己写是不行的。没有什么参照,思想越挖越空,最后就没什么可写的了。 所以要先模仿着写,模仿要有几个前提条件: 1.要有可以模仿的文章(最好是带有说理 性的文章) 2.你要理解这个文章,理解它的用词、句子结构、段落结构 3.这些 文章都有正确的中文翻译。同时,文章的长度不能超过500字。
怎么模仿,我给大家举个例子:首先要分析文章,分析每一句和上一句是什么关系。美国 人写作文的一个特点是,通常每段的第一句都包含了整段文字的内容,也就是我们常说的 topic sentence.。另一个特点是当你写完一个句子后,你要问WHY。你提出一个问题,然 后给出一个圆满的回答,这就是一篇优秀的作文。
再下一步就要具体了。写作需要两大能力:1.抽象的能力(abstract);2. 具体的能力 (details/examples)。具体化并不代表要写一个完整的故事。但是任何一篇文章都要给 人一个具体的意向。通过具体的东西来描述才能给人塌实的感觉。具体化只要举出几个地 方、几个名字、几件小事就可以了。
为什么好多同学在TOEFL、GMAT作文中分数很低呢,就是因为,他提出了问题却没有回答。
你通过不断的模仿写作,就可以不断的纠正语法和词组错误。如何把抽象和具体结合起来 是一个重点,如何在一个段落中只表达一个思想,这是另一个重点。美国人的判分特点是,如果你在一段中表达了一个以上的思想,那你的分数就不会高了。
分析完一篇文章后,怎么模仿着写呢?就是看着中文的翻译,把上面的英文一字不落的写下来,当你实在想不起来的时候,再看原文。等到写完之后,和原文对照一下,看看是谁写的漂亮。我刚刚开始模仿写作的时候,发现,模仿了几天后,写作水平的确提高了。因 为根据记忆学原则,这个单词你背过、读过,它都不能写在你的文章中间。如果一个单词 可以经常出现在你的脑子和文章中间,那这只证明了一件事,就是你写过这个字。但是你 自己写作你不可能用到这个字,那就只有一个可能,就是你在模仿文章时写过这个字。如 果一个结构别人写不出来,你能写出来,那你的分数就会高。
通过不断的模仿你的几大能力就会得到提高:1。你的语法错误会越来越少;2。句子结构 能力越来越强; 3。用词能力大大增加。一篇文章模仿两次就足够了。当你模仿了10篇文 章之后,你把这10篇文章再模仿一遍。等你模仿完20篇文章,你的写作能力就会大大提高 了。

2.逻辑思路能力
下面我们要讲的是写作中的第二大能力:逻辑思路能力。
在美国许多的写作考试中TOEFL写作是相对容易的。因为它的作文题本身非常简单,看到一个作文题你几乎就知道该怎么写。而GRE作文就相对复杂了。GRE作文方式永远是两种态度,两种方式让你选择。它永远是有对照性的。TOEFL作文考:“吃饭是在家里吃好,还是到饭店里吃好”;GMAT考和商业有关的:“产品制造出来是延续时间很长的好,还是延续时间不太长的好”;GRE作文:“在我们这个社会中间,现在专业人士太多了,而有综合知识的人太少了。你认为我们是更需要具有专业知识的人呢,还是需要具有广博知识的人?”TOEFL考生活、学习;GMAT考商业运作和商业道德;GRE考日常学术行为。但是不管它出什么题目,总是会摆出两种态度供你选择。另外,GRE的作文题目是提前发给你的,考试时出的题目绝不会超出它事先发给你的题目。它决不会出让学生看不懂的题目。所出的题目永远是世界性的,不涉及民族、宗教、政治色彩。
我考察了普林斯顿所出的全部范文后发现,美国人百分之七八十喜欢倾向于一种模式。讨论在哪里吃的问题时,要不在家里吃,要不在饭店吃,但是你不要又想在家里,又想在饭店(A OR B)。当然他们也比较认可中间的态度(C),也就是说,我既要A又要B,我是A和B结合起来产生C。事实上,好多中国学生结合A、B写是能写出好分数的。当然也有些题目是没有C这种态度的。
C态度这种写法和A、B的写法,在段落结构上是有差异的。我先讲两种文章的段落结构。
如果是采取A或B的写法,段落结构是比较简单的。通常分为三个层次,第一个层次是第一段。说明我要采取A还是B。第二个层次可以不只一段,说明为什么选择A/B是对的。为什么要有三段呢。因为必须至少有2个理由,至多3个理由。美国人认为一个理由是不够的,4个理由绝对太多。他们最喜欢2到3个理由。最后一段就是结尾,讨论B的缺点和部分优点,同时坚决强调你要选择A。
C模式:它有两大难点。1。你要表明A和B 的必不可少性,所以你的段落就会很长;2第二段就要写A的好处、缺陷都在哪;3要写B的好处和缺点;4 要证明只有把A和B结合起来才能弘扬两者的优点,避免缺点。这样的文章是最合情合理的,优点是非常的reasonable。缺点是这种文章的长度比我们前面说到的第一种类型的文章,至少要长出1/3。而你写的越长就越容易犯句子语法和结构,以及拼写的错误。所以如果你的写作水平很一般的话,就不要用这种写法。但是如果你的写作水平很高的话,我建议你用这种写法。尤其是碰到一些我认为只有把两者结合起来才能写好的题目时。所以GRE作文难就难在它的题目比较难。这种题目有两种写作方法,这两种方法都是能拿6分的。
逻辑思维能力的第二步就是怎么写好中间这部分。开头挺好写的,好多同学直接照着题目抄,这大可不必,也挺愚蠢的。GRE作文题目也是可以抄的,但是你最好还是自己写。千篇一律只有几种开头的方法:1。说大话开头法:开头就是一个宏伟的概括;2。幽默一点的开头法。3。从自我经历写起。

下面我们来具体讲一下中间应该怎么写。
首先来讲一下,写这三个理由要避免的几点:
*避免观点重复;不要讲了几遍其实都是一个理由。当你一点就能说明的时候,非要讲三遍就显的有点STUPID了。你要从多个方面来讲道理,而且要尽量把问题具体化。
*避免观点的庸俗化,并考虑美国人能否接受的问题。比如说要避免对任何宗教词批判太多。因为你永远搞不懂给你判分的是信什么教的。不能批判任何政治理想。不能贬低自己所在的国家。美国人最讨厌不爱自己国家的人。避免观点的庸俗化,就是我们说的有些东西可以想,但是不能写出来
GRE作文逻辑思路分为两种。一种是问题发挥型,一种是argument/争论型。
对于问题发挥型题目,你怎么发挥,怎么犯逻辑错误都没有问题,只要你能保证你观点的正确,并能用具体的事实证明你的观点。而对于argument/争论 型题目就不同了。它的出题方式是给你一段话,这段话后再给出一个总结。然后让你挑出它的逻辑错误。需要你作的是推翻它的结论或者对其加以补充。你只要拿出三点理由把它推翻就行了。这三点理由从哪里找呢,从文章里面找,从文章的周边关系找,从文章的背后找。
下面举一个例子:现在有一种计算机仪表设备,把它安在商用飞机上之后就必然能避免飞机在空中的碰撞。因为一架飞机发出碰撞信号后,另一架飞机就能接收这个信号并及时采取行动,从而避免飞机碰撞。
这里结论就是飞机必然能避免碰撞。你要做的就是推翻这个结论。它的因果关系是因为安装了仪表所以能够避免碰撞。你要说的是安装了仪表不一定能避免碰撞。现在你就要找出3点理由来。
1. 文章中没有任何统计数据告诉我们飞机的碰撞百分之百是商用飞机,因此如果避免碰撞,就要在所有飞行物上安装这种仪表。
2. 安装了仪表后,是否需要人来操作。如果是,那么因为有人的原因,就不能避免碰撞。
3. 要是这个仪表系统坏了。
4. 也没有谈到气候问题,卫星干扰问题等干扰因素……
所以Argument文章不需要你有文采,也不需要你有多么好的句子结构,它只是要求你的逻辑没有漏洞。
3.修辞学的能力
修辞学的能力也是非常重要的。比如比喻、排比等等,他们能带来力量和说服力。

To Learners [原]

English Writing

To Learners(致学习者)

明确一些概念:
[b]Composition[/b]: that which is composed, e.g. a poem, a book, a piece of music, an arrangement of objects to be painted or photographed; (esp.) exercise in writing by one who is learning a language. (OALD); the art or act of composing a musical or literary work.文学或音乐作品的艺术或创作(美国传统词典); a composition is a piece of written work that children write at school.(CCD);an intellectual creation: asa : a piece of writing; especially: a school exercise in the form of a brief essay (MWCD); an essay (especially one written as an assignment) (WordWeb);
[b]Writing[/b]: (pl.)literary work (OALD); a written work, especially a literary composition.文学作品:书面文章,尤指文学作品(美国传统词典); any piece of written work as writing, especially when considering the style of language used in it (CCD); a style or form of composition(MWCD); the work of a writer; anything expressed in letters of the alphabet (especially when considered from the point of view of style and effect) (WordWeb);
[b]Essay[/b]: piece of writing, usu. Short and in prose, on any one subject (OALD); a short literary composition on a single subject, usually presenting the personal view of the author小品文,随笔:内容通常论及一个主题的短小文章,通常表达作者个人的观点(美国传统词典); an essay is a short piece of writing on one particular subject written by a student.// An essay is a short piece of writing on one particular subject that is written by a writer for publication (CCD); an analytic or interpretative literary composition usually dealing with its subject from a limited or personal point of view (MWCD); an analytic or interpretive literary composition(WordWeb);
[b]Paper[/b]: essay, esp. one to be read to a learned society (OALD); a formal written composition intended to be published, presented, or read aloud; a scholarly essay or treatise.学术论文:一篇写好的正式著作,为了出版、讲演或宣读;学术文章或论文//A piece of written work for school; a report or theme.报告,论文:为学校所写的功课;报告或论文(美国传统词典);
[b]Article[/b]: piece of writing, complete in itself, in a newspaper or other periodical (OALD); a nonfictional literary composition that forms an independent part of a publication, as of a newspaper or magazine.文章:已形成出版物独立部分的一种非小说写实文章,如报刊或杂志上的(美国传统词典);
[b]Prose[/b]: ordinary speech or writing, without metrical structure.散文体:普通的言语或写作,没有韵律结构(美国传统词典);

The Importance of English Writing
我们学习用英语写作,有什么好处,有什么帮助呢?

对这个问题的答复应该是:好处很多,帮助很大。
1.写作能帮助我们提高使用英语的准确性。只要写一个句子,更不用说一段、一篇,就得力求句法、用词、拼写、大写、标点等等完全正确,而且与前后句联系紧密,语气连贯。写和说不同,写好后可以检查修改,而一次修改就是一次提高。写得越多,语言就会越准确。
2.写作能扩大所用语言的范围。口语所用的语言一般是比较简单的常用的,复杂的或文雅的语言很少用,也不宜用。而写作所用的语言则是多种多样的,从极简单的到极复杂的都用得上,所用的词汇和句型比口语中常用的要多,这对掌握英语当然极有好处。
3.写作训练帮助我们提高逻辑思考及分析问题的能力。写一篇作文,不论长短,都需要妥善地组织材料,得出结论,做到重点突出,条理清楚。这样,在锻炼写作能力的同时,也锻炼了分析与处理实际问题的能力。
4.写作要求认真细致,一丝不苟。从一词一句到全篇结构,都必须仔细琢磨,反复推敲。还要抄写工整,格式正确。所以在写作练习中可以培养严谨的工作作风。
5.写作对阅读、听力、口语有促进的作用。自己知道写作的甘苦,对别人的写法就会敏感一些。分析问题的能力提高了,听别人说话就会善于抓住要点。语言质量提高了,口语也会准确一些。
6.写作还有许多实际用途,诸如写信、撰写论文、起草报告及讲稿等等。同时写与译也密切相关,想做好翻译,必须提高写作水平。

Summary:
从英语写作的功能性出发,可以把写作分为以下四种,即:考试性写作、学术性写作、应用性写作和教学性写作。它们在某种程度上体现了写作的目的和意义,也是写作教学的出发点和重点,明确它们可以帮助我们更好地理解各类写作的要求,从而能有针对性地加以训练和学习。

对于考试性写作,分别举例说明:

Part Ⅴ
Writing(30 minutes)
Directions:For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic Pressure. You should write in at least 120 words, and base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below.
1.现代社会里充满了竞争与压力。
2.然而,有时压力并非坏事。
3.当然,过多的压力有害于我们的健康。
[范文]
Pressure 
In our modern society marked by competition, people have to be faced with various kinds of pressure, the pressure from work, from family, from study and even from your heart. And a lot of people are afraid of the pressure. They keep complaining about every thing and appear very anxious.
However, a certain measure of pressure is not necessarily bad. Just suppose without pressure how a high school student can pass the entrance to the university?
And the fear of losing one’s job keeps a worker working hard. Therefore, it is no exaggeration to say that pressure runs the world around.Of course too much pressure is harmful to our life. He who cannot handle the pressure might collapse someday if it is too much to endure. We’ve already heard too many examples of this. Thus the question is we must learn how to relieve ourselves of the burden of work and study and at the same time, let the stimulus continue to drive us to efforts.

(注:CET4大学英语四级,考试特点是:在半个小时内完成一篇120字词以上的命题作文,作文有提纲,要求文章结构合理,语言通顺,具有一定的逻辑性。)

7月28日A类写作考题
TASk 1
You should use about 20 minutes on this task.
The Chart below shows the amount of the economic assistance for the United Nations from six different countries.
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information below,
You should write at least 150 words.

TASk 2
You should write at least 250 words within 40 minutes.
Nowadays new technology influences our society more and more. Some people think the new technology brings us more disadvantages but more people think it brings more advantages.
To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion.
2004年12月4日
TASK1:流程图,3个图,how can river speed affacts the pollution in the river?水流的速度对污染的影响。水在流的快的地方污染沉积的少,在河口三角洲地带水流速度慢,污染沉积多,工业污染被MUD吸收了,农业污染造成了水生植物大量生长。
TASK2:有人说学校选学生应该根据学生的学术成绩选择,或者把不同能力的学生放在一起教育.分别讲述两种观点。Some people think that school aa their pupils according to their acadamic ability.Others believe that young people according different abilities ********* together。both sides都要论述
G类第一部分:

1 你因出差到新西兰,住在当地的朋友家中,但回国后发现电脑忘在朋友家中,写信给他请他帮忙寄回来。
2 你所住的宿舍被盗,写封信给房东,说明所发生的事故并提出建议。
3 你打算去另一家公司就职,约定星期一面谈,但现在你所在的单位派你星期一出差,因此不能去了,写信给那家公司请求推迟。
4 你准备向银行贷玉枕纱厨款100万美金,写信给银行说明你将如何支配。
G类、A类第二部分:
1上全日制寄宿班有好有坏,说说你的看法。
2有人认为私立学校其实就是为有钱人设立的学校,你是否同意该观点。
(注:IELTS考试)

Living Longer
【题目】In general, people are living longer now. Discuss the causes of this phenomenon. Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay.

Living Longer
In the past it was not uncommon for a man to die at forty, having lived a full life. But now we consider a lifespan of forty years to be very short. It is not unusual for people to live into their eighties and nineties, and some even reach 100. What's more, people are living long, healthy lives and are active well into their "golden years".
Mankind's longevity is due mainly to advances in science and technology. Medical breakthroughs have eradicated many fatal diseases that were once common. Perhaps more importantly, better general health means that people are less likely to contract infections in the first place. Better health also helps people prevent slowly debilitating conditions, such as heart disease, which can take their lives at an early age. And as civilization has advanced, our living environment and sources of food have become more sanitary. Furthermore, work is now safer and not as taxing on the human body. We do not wear out after just a few years of very hard work.
There are many reasons why people are now living longer than ever before. But what is more important is that they are living better as they live longer. It is my opinion that we have scientific and technological developments to thank for this progress.
(注:TOEFL考试)

Part VI Writing (45 min)

Joseph Epstein, a famous American writer, once said "we decide what is important and what is trivial in life. We decide that what makes us significant is either what we do or what we refuse to do, but no matter how indifferent the universe may be to our choices and decisions, these choices and decisions are ours to make. We decide. We choose, and as we decide and choose, so are our lives formed. In the end, forming our own destiny is what ambition is about
Do you agree or disagree with him? Write an eassay of about 400 words entitled: On Ambition
In the first part of your writing you should state your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or make a summary. You should supply an appropriate title for your essay.
Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.write your composition on answer sheet four.

(注:TEM8)

假设你是李华,作为选派的交流学生在美国某中学学习了一年,寄住在Mr. Brown家里,刚回到国内。回国后,你发现自己的一本英语词典遗忘在他家,因此给他写了一封信,请他帮助寄回词典。信的主要内容如下:
感谢在美国期间他所提供的帮助
一本英语词典忘记带回
词典是美国老师送的,非常珍贵
词典很可能丢在卧室的书架上
邮资自己付
注意:
1、词数100左右;信的开头和结尾已为你写好。
2、可适当增加细节,使行文连贯
2、参考词汇:邮资-postage
Dear Mr. Brown,

(2006高半夜凉初透考英语作文安徽卷)

Directions:
A. Study the following graph carefully and write an essay of about 200 words.
B. Your essay should meet the requirements below:
(1) describe the graph and interpret its meaning.
(2) give your comments on this phenomenon.
C. Your essay must be written clearly on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)

Directions:
An English newspaper has recently started a forum for the readers to discuss on the question of “Is it possible to find love online?” Write a letter to the editor, stating your point of view, and explain why.
Write your letter with no less than 100 words. Write it neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter, use “Li Ming" instead. You do not need to write the address. (10 points)

(注:考研英语)

Issue 74 “The most effective way to communicate an idea or value to large groups of people is through the use of images, not language.”

Argument 55 Some people pay money for the things they want or need. Other peopletrade products or goods for what they need. Compare the advantages of thesetwo ways of obtaining things. Which way do you prefer? Explain why.
(注:GRE)

补充:关于GRE写作
2002年11月,ETS在GRE写作推出了全新的Analytical Writing Section(逻辑写作),打破了中国学生自机考时代以来对GRE高分的垄断地位。改革后的GRE写作从此成为横在中国学生理想和现实之间的一大障碍。为此本文即从GRE写作的全方位解读出发,力求给大家攻克写作这道屏障助上一臂之力。
简介
Analytical Writing是General GRE Test考试三个必考部分之一,主要用于评价考生的逻辑思维和英文写作能力。即分析问题,阐述立场,论证观点的能力和独立完成一篇中心明确逻辑严谨的英文文章的能力。
组成部分
GRE写作包括两个部分:
1、Issue task(45min),要求考生根据所给题目,完成一篇表明立场的逻辑立论文。
2、Argument task(30min),要求考生分析所给题目,完成一篇驳论文,指出并有力地驳斥题目中的主要逻辑错误。
特点
1、题库
ETS公布了GRE写作部分的题库(目前有242道Argument和243道Issue),因此中国考生应在考前对所有题目都进行预习以节约考试时的审题时间,一般说来,可通过写作其中100~150个提纲进而了解GRE写作的一般结构,再通过完成30~50篇完整的作文以形成自己的写作思路并提高英文表达能力。
2、评阅采用按计件制
  评卷人对一篇文章的评阅速度是非常快的,其没有时间推敲每篇文章中的各个细节。故考生应该迎合评卷人的评卷思路,用最规范的结构和最清晰的表达来体现自己的思路:首段鲜明地提出观点,在中间段落拉开论述层次,各段首句都应该是该段的topic sentence。
  3、GRE写作采用整体评分标准。
  首先,从ETS公布的各分数段评分标准看,其评分主要注重以下三个方面:①逻辑分析能力(要求insightful);②文章的组织(要求well-organized);③语言能力(要求standard written English; concise; varied structure等)。
ETS特别强调,评分是从整体,而不是各个角度分别进行。这就说明,尽管中国考生的语言能力偏弱,但只要能在其他两个角度上给评卷人留下深刻印象,也一样可以拿到6分。  
4、两个部分在总分中拥有相同权重
由于Argument的写作并不牵涉到考生个人观点,而只须指出作者逻辑上的漏洞,因此在经过训练以后,写作起来并不困难;Issue的写作需要考生展开自己所设立的观点,并要求其具备逻辑洞察力、论证观点能力以及语言组织能力,因此这部分对于中国考生来说较为困难。但这两部分在总分中的权重是一样的,因此考生应该采取一定的保分策略:尽量提高Issue部分的写作能力而力求Argument部分获得满分(或高分)。
评分标准以及分数计算
和其他出国考试一样,GRE作文分数也是单列的:从0分到6分,每0.5分一个层级。通常来讲,作文分数在4分以下的考生会被认为写作能力不足,大家只有拿到5分以上才被认为真正属于above-average之列,所以争取考到5分以上是每一个准备参加GRE考试的考生的基本目标。无论是Issue还是Argument,在评分标准上都有共同之处,即:一、观点要有深度,论证要有说服力;二、组织要有条理,表达清晰准确;三、语言流利,句式复杂,词汇丰富。概括出来就是要注意行文的“思想性”、“结构性”和“表达性”。GRE写作的记分方式为:两篇作文总分都是6分 在GRE的官方网站上了解到,GRE董事会将于2002年10月1日起调整考试的公告及相关资料。GRE董事会主人比黄花瘦席、华盛顿大学研究生院院长罗伯特•泰克(Robert•Thach)认为,新的写作考试较之过去的考试扩大了考查范围,更注重学生的逻辑分析能力,“这种能力与研究生应具备的实际能力更为接近”。
  分析性写作考试原被称为“写作评价”(Writing Assessment),由ETS研究开发,于1999年10月开考。ETS宣布,自2002年10月1日起,将“写作评价”考试改名为“分析性写作”(Analytical Writing),以此置换原有GRE考试中语言、数量、分析中的分析部分,在评分上也有相应的举措与改变。
  ETS之所以对GRE进行这种调整,是出自两个方面的考虑:一是帮助研究生院的招生工作人员更好地评价申请者的思维能力和写作能力;二是通过一个实际的操作性评价过程来了解申请者的论辩说理能力———这种能力,对于研究生的学习是非常重要的。
  在GRE调整后的写作测验中,包含两个写作任务。一个是45分钟的“观点陈述”,要求考生陈述对某个问题的看法。这个问题通常是一个得到普遍关注的问题。考生可以从任一角度去陈述自己的看法。另一个是30分钟的“论证辨析”。这部分写作要求考生不仅仅是表示对某种观点的支持或反对,而且需要对问题的逻辑关系进行深入分析。这类题目更具挑战性。
  “观点陈述”与“论证辨析”这两个题目是互为补充的。第一个题目是要求考生陈述自己的观点;第二个题目要求考生对别人的论述进行评析。这样的考题可以测试考生是怎样清晰地说明一个较复杂的问题;规范、流畅地陈述观点并为其提供支持证据;通过事实和例证来支持自己的观点、紧紧围绕主要问题展开讨论的,可以有效测评考生的“论(逻辑)说(说理)”能力。在ETS的网站(www.ets.org)上,已经免费为将参加GRE考试的考生提供了大量参考资料,帮助他们准备写作考试。在这些参考资料中,包含一个“观点陈述”试题库和一个“论证辨析”试题库。在报名的同时,考生还可以得到一个用于练习的光盘。由于写作测验评分的技术难度远高于选择题评分,所以到2002年10月,GRE考试费用会上涨10美元,约为140美元。

宜宾学院外国语学院英语写作 is powered by BlogCN.com - WordPress | WordPress Themes